Work

Why is this important?

Toronto does a great job educating and creating skilled residents, and attracting talented, eager (and needed) workers from around the globe. But lack of decent employment prospects for many, especially young workers and recent immigrants, exacts a high toll. For the city, this means lost opportunities to benefit from this talent and commitment, and individuals and families experience a myriad of economic, health, and social costs while trying to make ends meet.

 

What are the trends?

The city’s unemployment rate has returned to it pre-recession level.258 The average monthly number of Employment Insurance beneficiaries continued its downward trend, but does not reflect those who have given up actively looking for work or who are ineligible due to the narrowing of EI criteria. While it is no longer the case that unemployment rates are higher among landed immigrants than among the Canadian-born population, unemployment remains a more likely prospect for recent immigrants. Toronto’s youth, particularly those in Canada less than five years, continue to face troubling long-term trends.

 

What’s new?

Although earnings have kept pace with inflation, and average hours worked per week have remained similar, the way earnings and employment are distributed in Toronto’s labour market across age, gender, and educational attainment is very different today than before the 2008 recession. In an inspection blitz, almost a quarter of workplaces employing young interns were violating the Employment Standards Act. Meanwhile, mental health issues among the GTHA labour force may cost $17b in lost productivity over the next 10 years.

 

Where is job growth happening in Toronto?

 

Toronto’s overall employment in 2015 was up by 2.7% from 2014 (versus 1.5% growth in 2014 over 2013), with 37,870 jobs added:

  • Toronto’s total employment in 2015 was 1,422,280 jobs compared to 1,384,390 in 2014.[1]
  • Of those 1,422,280 jobs, 1,077,930 were full-time and 344,350 were part-time.
    • Full-time employment increased by 1.4% from 2014. This is the ninth consecutive year full-time employment has exceeded one million jobs.
    • Part-time employment increased 7.3% (23,490 jobs) from 2014,[2] a result of the hiring of support staff for the Pan Am/Parapan Am Games.[3]
  • The median hourly wage in Toronto in February 2016 for all professions was $22.50.[4]
  • Across the Region, median hourly earnings were greater in 2015 (in current dollars, $22.05) than they were in 2014, when it was $21.33, and 2013, when they were $20.67. Median hourly earnings in 2015 were above both the national ($22.00) and provincial ($22.00) rates.
    • Since 2000, the median hourly wage has increased by 27.4%, lower than the provincial (28.2%) and the national (31.8%) rates.[5]
    • The median number of hours worked (during a reference week for all jobs) in the Region in 2015 was 37.5 hours, equal to the provincial median and just above the national median (37 hours). From 2000 to 2015, the number of median hours worked decreased by 6.7%, equal to the change provincially but higher than the 2.7% decrease nationally.[6]

11% fewer businesses opened in Toronto in 2015 than in 2014:

  • 4,460 new businesses were established in the city in 2015, providing possible places of employment, but the number was lower than the 5,030 opened in 2014.[7]
  • 60.6% of these new establishments located in the Downtown, the city’s several dense economic Centres, and the 22 Employment Areas.[8]

Toronto saw shifts in its labour force between 2001 and 2011:

  • The agriculture and other resource-based industries, the smallest sector of the labour force, increased from 0.7% of the total in 2001 to 0.9% in 2011.
  • The finance and real estate sector decreased from 10.1% in 2006 to 9.9% in 2011.
  • The labour force in the health and education sectors increased from 14.05% to 17.2%.
  • Manufacturing and construction industries decreased from 18.8% in 2001 to 12.9% in 2011, and wholesale and retail trades also decreased from 14.8% to 14.2%.
  • Business services, the largest sector of the labour force, remained relatively constant between 2006 and 2011 at 25.2% and 25.5% respectively. All other services represented 16.5% in 2006 and 18.39% in 2011.
    • The breakdown of the labour force was similar in Ontario in general, with major differences in the business sector (19.6% in Ontario versus 25.5% in Toronto) and in the manufacturing and construction sector (16.5% in Ontario versus 12.9% in Toronto).[9]

 

The vast majority of the Region’s labour force worked in the services producing sector in 2015, most of them in the trade sector:

  • In 2015, 17.5% of the Region’s labour force worked in the goods producing sector (slightly below the 20.2% across Ontario and 21.6% across Canada) while 82.5% worked in the services producing sector (slightly higher than 79.8% in Ontario and 78.4% in Canada).
    • Within the Regions’ goods producing sector, the largest amount of people worked in manufacturing (10.1%), while in the services producing sector, most were employed in the trade sector (15.2%).[10]

 

The office sector remains the largest in Toronto, accounting for almost one of every two jobs:

  • The City of Toronto’s annual Employment Survey reports on whether employment in six sectors flourished.
  • 48.8% of jobs were in the office sector, 16.3% in the institutional sector, 12.4% in service, 10.2% in retail, 8.7 in manufacturing, and 3.5% in “other.”[11]
    • The “other” sector was the fastest growing in 2015, adding 2,550 jobs (an increase of 5.3%).
    • The office sector was next with 4.7% growth, followed by the service (+3.6%) and retail (+0.6%) sectors.
    • Other sectors shrank: manufacturing lost 0.5% of its jobs, and the institutional sector followed with a loss of 0.9% of jobs.[12]

 

41.3% of all jobs in the City (587,490 jobs) in 2015 were in the Downtown and Centres:

  • Employment in the Yonge-Eglinton Centre continues to decline. Of the city’s Centres, Yonge-Eglinton was the only one to see a decline (8.5%) in employment in 2015.[13] Employment also declined in Yonge-Eglinton (by 3.8%) between 2013 and 2014.[14]
  • There were about 10,000 new jobs in 2015 in offices in the King and Bay area financial core (excluding bank branches and office uses in retail concourses). This represents an 11.8% increase (to 93,660 jobs) from 2005.[15]

 

Who is working in Toronto and who isn’t?

The unemployment rate in the city of Toronto dropped in 2015:

  • Toronto’s unemployment rate (based on the Labour Force Survey) was 7.7% in 2015, down from 9.5% in 2014 and 8.9% in 2013.
  • The change increased the employment rate in 2015 to 59.7% (up from 58.6% in 2014).[16]
  • Toronto’s unemployment has historically tracked higher (for the most part) than for the rest of Ontario and the rest of Canada.[17]

City of Toronto Unemployment Rate: January 2010-January 2016 [18]

city-unemployment

  • The average monthly number of Employment Insurance beneficiaries continued its downward trend, with 23,389 in 2015, versus 24,600 in 2014, 26,469 in 2013, and 26,998 in 2012.[19] It should be noted, however, that the declining number of EI beneficiaries does not reflect the number of people who have given up actively looking for work, or those who are now ineligible due to the narrowing of EI qualifications.

How are some demographics disconnected from employment opportunities?

When it comes to employment, Toronto’s youth have faced troubling long-term trends with youth unemployment hovering between 15-20% for more than a decade:

  • After dropping to 18.12% in 2013, the Toronto youth unemployment rate in 2014 climbed again, reaching a staggering 21.65%.[20] However, in 2015 the rate dropped to 15.54%.[21]

Youth (Aged 15-24) Unemployment in the City of Toronto, 1990-2015 [22]

youth-unemployment

Many youth are not employed, nor in education or training, and the roots of this trend are complex:

  • About 10% of youth ages 15-24 in the GTHA, or as many as 83,000 people, were Not in Education, Employment or Training (or NEET, a Statistics Canada category) in 2011.
    • Many groups are over-represented in this category, including racialized and newcomer youth, aboriginal youth, youth living in poverty or in conflict with the law, youth in and leaving care, LGBTQ* youth, and youth with disabilities and special needs.
    • Through extensive consultations with youth on the subject, CivicAction produced a 2014 report that identified common barriers facing this group of youth as well as opportunities to help close the gap between youth who are NEET and those who aren’t. Four common barriers identified as facing NEET youth were:
  • systemic barriers that lead to weakened social networks, such as few mentors or role models;
  • lack of opportunities to gain meaningful work-related experience;
  • lack of accessible and affordable transportation; and
  • racism and structural discrimination.[23]
    • As of 2009, Canada had the second-lowest total NEET percentage (13.3%) of 15- to 29-year-olds among selected OECD countries. Germany had the lowest at 11.6%, France and the UK tied with 15.6%, the US had 16.9% and Italy 21.2%.[24]

Unemployment in the Toronto Region remains a more likely prospect for recent immigrants than for Canadian-born workers:

  • As of June 2016, 50.8% of workers in the Toronto Region (some 1,772,600 people) were landed immigrants, while 46.5% (1,621,700 people) were Canadian-born.[25]
  • The unemployment rate (for workers aged 15 and over) for all immigrants in the Region was 6.8% in 2015, vs 7.2% for those born in Canada.[26]
  • Recent immigrants were more likely to be unemployed than established immigrants:
    • In 2015, recent immigrants (those entering the country within the previous five years) faced a 10.9% unemployment rate, while those in Canada 10 years or more fared better at 5.9%.[27]
  • In the city of Toronto, the unemployment rate for those 15 and over born in Canada was 9.0% in 2014 (up from 7.9% in 2013), while for recent immigrants (entered Canada within the last five years) it was 16.2% (up from 15.6% in 2013 and 14.9% in 2012). Immigrants who had been in the country longer, between five and 10 years, fared slightly better, with a 12.9% unemployment rate (up from 11.1% in 2013 and 9.7% in 2012).
    • Recent immigrant youth (15-24 years old) have also faced higher unemployment rates (24.1% in 2014, down from 28.1% in 2013) than Canadian-born youth (21.5%, up from 16.4% in 2013).[28] However, in 2015, those rates dropped to an astonishing 12.6%.[29]

 

The way earnings and employment are distributed in Toronto’s labour market across age, gender, and educational attainment is very different today than before the 2008 recession:

  • A report from the Toronto Workforce Innovation Group tracks Toronto’s labour market data from 2007 to 2014 from the Labour Force Survey. The group finds that although earnings have kept pace with inflation, and average hours worked per week have remained similar, some things are different in today’s labour market.
  • Those without post-secondary education have the highest rates of unemployment.

 

Unemployment Rate by Educational Attainment, Toronto, 2007-2014 [30]

unemployment-education

Source: Labour Force Survey 2015, City of Toronto Data 2007-2014 Yearly Average Unemployment Rate

  • Across age and gender, those without post-secondary education have the poorest labour market outcomes:
    • Labour force participation rates for those under 55 without post-secondary education have declined significantly, from an average of 75.8% to 70.8%.
    • In particular, young women without post-secondary education have poor labour market outcomes. They are earning less (real wages have declined by almost $1/hour), and their unemployment rates have increased while their labour force participation rates have declined.
    • These trends speak to the value of a university education. University-educated workers are earning more, and their employment rates remained relatively steady in the 95 months studied. A degree also earns more than experience: a young university grad earns much more per hour than an older worker without a degree ($26.42 versus $23.11).
    • Workers aged 55+ are less likely to be unemployed, but if they lose their job they struggle to regain one.[31]

 

Employment Rate and Earnings by Educational Attainment and Age, Toronto, 2007-2014 [32]

workers

How are vulnerable workers faring with increasingly precarious work?

Ontario’s minimum wage increased last year, but it’s still not enough to lift the working poor out of poverty:

  • Ontario’s general minimum wage (which applies to most employees) increased in October 2015 (only the second increase in five years) to $11.25 per hour. At the time it was the second highest in Canada, behind the Northwest Territories’ $12.50.[33]
  • But according to the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (CCPA), Ontario’s minimum wage is still 61% percent lower than that needed for working families to get by in Toronto.
    • The report estimated that the living wage required in 2013 by each of two working parents (working 37.5 hours per week) with two young children was $18.52/hour.
    • A living wage of $18.52 an hour would make a huge difference particularly in the lives of families who work in the retail and service sectors, where lower-waged workers are concentrated.[34]
    • Full-time work at the minimum wage puts a worker 20% below Ontario’s low-income measure.[35]

 

Ideas-and-InnovationsThe Atkinson Foundation has partnered with the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives to launch the Ontario Living Wage Network. Their website is full of living wage resources about the growing wave of living wage initiatives — now 24 communities across Ontario.[36]

Chinese restaurant workers are being denied basic rights, and older workers, those without legal resident status, and those with poorer English are the most exploited:

  • In the last three years, the Metro Toronto Chinese & Southeast Asian Legal Clinic (MTCSALC) has received complaints related to employment standards from over 600 workers, many in the restaurant industry.
    • Their experiences are not new, the clinic says. Three decades ago, a 1988 report on workers of Chinese descent in Chinatown’s restaurants showed that employment standards were not being met.
  • Between January 2013 and March 2016, MTCSALC interviewed 184 restaurant workers (not all worked at “Chinese restaurants,” i.e., those serving Chinese food).
    • Half (49%) worked at two or more restaurants. 29% worked at two, 13% worked at three, and 7% worked at more than three. As workers completed a survey for each restaurant they worked at, 263 responses resulted, and workers may be included multiple times in the percentages reported.
    • Most of the restaurants were located in Scarborough (28%) and Toronto (26%).

Location of Respondents’ Workplaces

workers-workplaces

  • The study found “widespread and persistent” violations of both the Employment Standards Act (ESA) and the Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSA).
  • 59% of the workers reported working more than 40 hours a week: 27% reported working 40-50 hours, 28% reported 51-60 hours, and 4% over 60 hours.
  • Almost 90% of those who worked more than 44 hours a week did not receive the overtime pay to which they were entitled. 61% of workers did not receive public holiday pay, and 57% did not receive vacation pay. 43% did not receive even the minimum wage.
  • One in five (20%) were owed wages by an employer.
  • 29% indicated witnessing workplace injury or health and safety issues at work. 58% of the workplace injuries were not reported to the Workplace Safety and Insurance Board.
  • According to MTCSALC’s report, participant’s qualitative responses showed that older workers and workers without legal resident status are the most vulnerable. Some workers said they could not leave an abusive job because, without English language skills, they would be unable to find another.
  • The report authors acknowledge that, as interviews were conducted with clients from MTSALC and other organizations that serve Chinese communities, the study may have an oversampling of workers with workplace concerns.[37]

A 2015 Ministry of Labour inspection “blitz” of workplaces across the province found almost a quarter of those employing young interns were violating the Employment Standards Act:

  • From September through December 2015, employment standards officers inspected 123 workplaces, focusing on the GTA. The blitz was meant to educate employers in sectors often employing young workers (who are increasingly precariously employed) and promote compliance with the Employment Standards Act (ESA).
  • Of the 123 employers inspected, 27 had no internship program, 19 had no interns at the time of inspection and 77 had interns.
  • Of the 77 with interns:
    • 41 had internship programs in which interns were exempt from the ESA (e.g., co-op students)
    • 18 had paid interns and were in compliance with the ESA; and
    • 18 (23%) were not complying with the ESA. Amongst those, 59 compliance orders, tickets (with a fine of $295 and a “victim fine surcharge”), or orders to pay wages (totalling $140,630) were issued. The most common violations were related to vacation pay, public holiday pay, minimum wage, recordkeeping, and wage statements.
  • In total, throughout the internships blitz officers issued 45 compliance orders, six tickets, and eight orders to pay wages.[38]
  • Meanwhile, the Canadian Intern Association has made recommendations to the Ministry of Labour regarding unpaid student internships, which it believes place interns at a disadvantage. For example, interns may not enforce their rights if filing a complaint may jeopardize receiving a reference from the employer.
    • The association’s recommendations include banning overnight work for interns and expanding investigations to enforce ESA compliance.[39]

 

Ideas-and-InnovationsThe Urban Worker Project is a collective of Torontonians representing precarious workers in labour conversation. Independent contractors, interns, part-time employees, self-employed entrepreneurs, and freelancing creative workers who don’t have access to pensions, benefits, unions and don’t have the stability to put unpaid time into organizing. The Urban Worker Project aims to launch public campaigns and policy recommendations to advocate for the legal rights of precarious workers.[40]

 

Mental health issues among the GTHA labour force may cost $17b in lost productivity over the next 10 years and result in 583 suicides in 2016:

  • An October 2015 survey on mental health in the workplace conducted on behalf of CivicAction found that an estimated one in two members of the GTHA labour force (1.5 million workers) have experienced a mental health issue.[41]
  • 1,023 employees, 100 employers, and 100 physicians across Canada participated in the survey. Based on survey results, CivicAction reports that:
    • an estimated 680,000 of the 3.2 million workers in the GTHA currently have a mental health issue, and 995,000 had mental health issues previously;[42]
    • 27% of employees reported stress, and one in four of those reporting high stress said they had taken a mental health absence within the past two years (as did one in 10 who reported low stress);
    • 71% of employees are concerned about the stigma associated with mental illness at work (one in five employees believe becoming mentally ill is within a person’s control), 65% reported self-stigma, and 53% worried about stigma from their own physicians; and
    • projectingmental health issues among GTHA workers will result in lost productivity worth $17b over the next 10 years and 583 suicides in 2016 (a projection based on previous rates).
  • Reasons for mental health problems can include:
    • income inequality;
    • job insecurity;
    • racial discrimination;
    • family care demands; and
    • housing conditions and unaffordability.[43]

 


 

To learn more about innovative community-based organizations and programs working to address issues relating to health and wellness, check out ckc.torontofoundation.ca.

 

 


 

[1] City of Toronto. (December 2015). Toronto Employment Survey 2015. Last accessed September 1, 2016 from http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/City%20Planning/SIPA/Files/pdf/T/2015-Employment-Bulletin%20FINAL-accessible.pdf; City of Toronto. (December 2014). Toronto Employment Survey 2014. Last accessed September 1, 2016 from http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/City%20Planning/SIPA/Files/pdf/S/survey2014.pdf

[2] City of Toronto. (January 18, 2016). 2015 Toronto Employment Survey. Last accessed July 6, 2016 from: http://www.toronto.ca/legdocs/mmis/2016/pg/bgrd/backgroundfile-90425.pdf.

[3] City of Toronto. (2016). Toronto Economic Bulletin. Last accessed July 7, 2016 from http://www1.toronto.ca/wps/portal/contentonly?vgnextoid=f30fd0643932e310VgnVCM10000071d60f89RCRD; City of Toronto. (February 17, 2016). Economic Dashboard – Annual Summary, 2015. Last accessed September 1, 2016 from http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Economic%20Development%20&%20Culture/Business%20Pages/Filming%20in%20Toronto/Info%20for%20residents/backgroundfile-90508.pdf.

[4] City of Toronto. (February 2016). Economic Indicators, February 2016. Last accessed September 1, 2016 from http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Economic%20Development%20&%20Culture/Business%20Pages/Reports%20&%20Data%20Centre/Economic%20Indicators/2016-february.pdf

[5] NVS Table IX-4-a: Median Hourly Earnings (in current dollars).

[6] Table IX-5: Median Actual Hours Worked (hours per reference week)

[7] City of Toronto. (December 2015). Toronto Employment Survey 2015. Last accessed September 1, 2016 from http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/City%20Planning/SIPA/Files/pdf/T/2015-Employment-Bulletin%20FINAL-accessible.pdf.

[8] City of Toronto. (2016, January 18). 2015 Toronto Employment Survey. Last accessed July 6, 2016 from: http://www.toronto.ca/legdocs/mmis/2016/pg/bgrd/backgroundfile-90425.pdf

[9] NVS Table XI-5-a: Experienced Labour Force by Industry

[10] NVS Table XI-5-b: Experienced Labour Force by Industry

[11] City of Toronto. (2016, January 18). 2015 Toronto Employment Survey. Last accessed July 6, 2016 from: http://www.toronto.ca/legdocs/mmis/2016/pg/bgrd/backgroundfile-90425.pdf

[12] City of Toronto. (December 2015). Toronto Employment Survey 2015. Last accessed September 1, 2016 from http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/City%20Planning/SIPA/Files/pdf/T/2015-Employment-Bulletin%20FINAL-accessible.pdf.

[13] City of Toronto. (2016, January 18). 2015 Toronto Employment Survey. Last accessed July 6, 2016 from: http://www.toronto.ca/legdocs/mmis/2016/pg/bgrd/backgroundfile-90425.pdf

[14] City of Toronto (2014). Toronto Employment Survey 2014. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/City%20Planning/SIPA/Files/pdf/S/survey2014.pdf.

[15] City of Toronto. (2016, January 18). 2015 Toronto Employment Survey. Last accessed July 6, 2016 from: http://www.toronto.ca/legdocs/mmis/2016/pg/bgrd/backgroundfile-90425.pdf

[16] City of Toronto. (February 17, 2016). Economic Dashboard – Annual Summary, 2015. Last accessed September 1, 2016 from http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Economic%20Development%20&%20Culture/Business%20Pages/Filming%20in%20Toronto/Info%20for%20residents/backgroundfile-90508.pdf.

[17] City of Toronto. (February 17, 2016). Economic Dashboard February 17, 2016. Last accessed September 1, 2016 from http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Economic%20Development%20&%20Culture/Business%20Pages/Filming%20in%20Toronto/Info%20for%20residents/Economic%20Dashboard%20Presentation%20-%20(for%20February).pdf.

[18] City of Toronto. (February 17, 2016). Economic Dashboard February 17, 2016. Last accessed September 1, 2016 from http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Economic%20Development%20&%20Culture/Business%20Pages/Filming%20in%20Toronto/Info%20for%20residents/Economic%20Dashboard%20Presentation%20-%20(for%20February).pdf.

[19] City of Toronto. Economic Dashboard. Last accessed September 1, 2016 from http://www1.toronto.ca/wps/portal/contentonly?vgnextoid=9792de0096180510VgnVCM10000071d60f89RCRD [Economy; Number of Employment Insurance (E.I.) Beneficiaries]

[20] City of Toronto. Division of Economic Development and Culture. Special request. Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

[21] City of Toronto, Economic Development and Culture. (August 2016). Special Request.

[22] City of Toronto. Division of Economic Development and Culture. Special request. Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

[23] CivicAction. (2014). Escalator: Jobs for Youth Facing Barriers: Companies Youth Moving Up in the World. Last accessed September 18, 2015, from http://civicaction.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/EscalatorReport2014.pdf.

[24] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. (May 2012). Youth neither enrolled nor employed . Last accessed September 28, 2015 from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-001-x/2012002/article/11675-eng.pdf.

[25] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 282-0101: Labour force survey estimates (LFS), by immigrant status, age group, Canada, regions, provinces and Montréal, Toronto, Vancouver census metropolitan areas, 3-month moving average, unadjusted for seasonality, Geography limited to “Toronto, Ontario,” and Labour force characteristics expanded to include “Labour force.” http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=2820101&pattern=&csid=.

[26] NVS Table Table VI-2-b: Unemployment rate of immigrants and non-immigrants

[27] Table VI-2-b: Unemployment rate of immigrants and non-immigrants

[28] City of Toronto. Division of Economic Development and Culture. Special request. Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

[29] City of Toronto. Division of Economic Development and Culture. Special Request. Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

[30] Toronto Workforce Innovation Group. (September 2015). 95 Months Later: Turbulent Times in Toronto’s Labour Market. Last accessed April 19, 2016 from http://www.workforceinnovation.ca/sites/default/files/95MonthsLater_0.pdf

[31] Toronto Workforce Innovation Group. (September 2015). 95 Months Later: Turbulent Times in Toronto’s Labour Market. Last accessed April 19, 2016 from http://www.workforceinnovation.ca/sites/default/files/95MonthsLater_0.pdf

[32] Toronto Workforce Innovation Group. (September 2015). 95 Months Later: Turbulent Times in Toronto’s Labour Market. Last accessed April 19, 2016 from http://www.workforceinnovation.ca/sites/default/files/95MonthsLater_0.pdf

[33] Toronto Star. (March 19, 2015). http://www.thestar.com/news/queenspark/2015/03/19/ontario-minimum-wage-to-increase-to-1125-in-october.html.

[34] Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. (2015). Making Ends Meet. Last accessed September 23, 2015 from https://www.policyalternatives.ca/publications/reports/making-ends-meet#sthash.7KJovonR.dpuf.

[35] Mojtehedzadeh, Sara. (October 1, 2015). Minimum wage rises, but workers still suffering. Toronto Star. Last accessed February 22, 2016 from http://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2015/10/01/minimum-wage-rises-but-workers-still-suffering.html

[36] Ontario Living Wage Network. Webpage. Last accessed July 29, 2016 from www.ontariolivingwage.ca

[37] Metro Toronto Chinese & Southeast Asian Legal Clinic. (April 25, 2016). Sweet & Sour: The struggle of Chinese restaurant workers. Last accessed April 26, 2016 from http://yourlegalrights.on.ca/sites/all/files/Chinese%20Workers%20Inside%20(Final%20Low%20resolution%20Small).pdf

[38] Ontario Ministry of Labour. Blitz Results: Internships. (April 29, 2016) Last accessed July 9, 2016 from https://www.labour.gov.on.ca/english/es/inspections/blitzresults_intern2016.php

[39] Canadian Intern Association. Submission to the Special Advisors for the Changing Workplaces Review. (September 2015) Last accessed July 9, 2016 from http://internassociation.ca/tempcia/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Canadian-Intern-Association-Submissions-to-the-Changing-Workplaces-Review.pdf

[40] Urban Worker Project http://www.urbanworker.ca/;Mojtehedzadeh, S. A new voice for labour in a world of precarious work (March 29, 2016). The Toronto Star. Last accessed July 14, 2016 from: http://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2016/03/29/a-new-voice-for-labour-in-a-world-of-precarious-work.html

[41] CivicAction (April 2016). Mental Health in the Workplace. Last accessed April 19, 2016 from http://civicaction.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Research-Summary_Mental-Health-in-the-Workplace.pdf

[42] CBC News. (April 18, 2016). Mental health issues affect 1 in 2 Toronto, Hamilton workers: CivicAction. Last accessed April 20, 2016 from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/programs/metromorning/civicaction-mental-health-toronto-hamilton-1.3540757

[43] CivicAction (April 2016). Mental Health in the Workplace. Last accessed April 19, 2016 from http://civicaction.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Research-Summary_Mental-Health-in-the-Workplace.pdf