Safety

Why is this important?tvs-safety

The city can prosper only if its residents feel safe in their neighbourhoods, engage with one another, and trust their institutions. The majority of Torontonians do feel safe (almost 80% feel at least somewhat comfortable walking in their community at night).[1] However, tracking indicators like perceptions of safety, as well as violent and non-violent crime, allows us to both test the basis of that confidence, and also to better understand the places and situations where vulnerable residents don’t experience safety.

 

What are the trends?

Many indicators of safety confirm a continuing long-term downward trend, such as the city’s youth crime rate, and the rate of police-reported crime. Others show little change over time (hate/bias crimes in Toronto, for example, have averaged approximately 143 a year over the past 10 years). The number of homicides in the city, which rose in 2012 and 2013 after a four-year decline, has remained stable since. Others indicators are beginning to shift in negative directions.

 

What’s new?

The Muslim community is experiencing more hate/bias crimes. Toronto police have investigated 359 sex trafficking cases since 2013, and sexual offences are being reported more often. Stabbing homicides have increased by 157% since 2012, reaching a four-year high. Drug-impaired driving charges are way up, and cannabis dispensaries are proliferating. One in three Torontonians believe police officers are “above the law,” and four in five believe they are treated differently in the justice system. Half think there is systemic racism in Toronto, and just over half support the Black Lives Matter movement. A pedestrian is hit by a vehicle every four hours in Toronto, and motor vehicle collisions and bad driving are putting schoolchildren in danger.

 

How safe is Toronto?

For the ninth straight year, the Toronto Region had the lowest rate of police-reported crime in 2015 among the 33 Canadian Census Metropolitan Areas:

  • The crime rate in the Region was 2,892 per 100,000 population, lower than the national crime rate of 5,198 per 100,000 and much lower, comparatively, than Ottawa (3,329), Montréal (3,572), Calgary (5,279), and Vancouver (7,407).[2] The Region’s crime rate declined by 34% between 2005 and 2015.[3]
  • The overall crime rate in Toronto dropped by 0.7% in 2015 from 2014 (versus a 0.3% decrease in Ontario and a 1.9% increase in Canada), to 3,788 per 100,000 population, lower than the national (5,888/100,000) and provincial (3,991) crime rates. The city’s crime rate declined by 53.2% between 1998 and 2015, more than across Ontario (48.6% decrease) and Canada (34.0% decrease).[4]
    • On the Overall Crime Severity Index, the city increased 1.3% from 2014 to 56.4 per 100,000 population in 2015, higher than the Ontario’s 50.6 but well below Canada’s 69.7 (both the province and the country also saw increases over 2014, of 1.8% and 4.5% respectively). The city, province, and country have all seen significant decreases on the Index between 1998 and 2015, with rates decreasing by 51.4% in Toronto, 49.8% in Ontario, and 41.3% in Canada.[5]

 

The rate of violent crime across the Toronto Region increased in 2015 from 2014:

  • The Region saw 735 violent crimes per 100,000 population in 2015 (up 3% from 2014). Comparatively, Ottawa had 616 violent crimes per 100,000, Calgary 779, Montréal 889, and Vancouver 1,043. Among the 33 metropolitan regions in Canada, only six (Sherbrooke, Ottawa, Hamilton, St. Catharine’s–Niagara, Guelph, and Barrie) had a lower violent crime rate.[6] The Region’s rate is lower than the national (1,062) and provincial (786) rates.[7]
  • On the Violent Crime Severity Index (measuring the seriousness of crimes by the sentences handed down by the courts), the Region falls below the Canadian average in 2015 of 74.5 per 100,000 persons at 64.6. Comparatively, Ottawa had a score of 53.7, Calgary 72.1, Montréal 76.1, and Vancouver 85.0.[8]
  • The homicide rate (per 100,000 population) in the Region was also lower than it was nationally at 1.35 per 100,000 (versus 1.68 nationally).[9]

 

In the city of Toronto in 2015, the number of homicides remained largely unchanged from the past two years. In 2014 and 2013 there were 57 homicides, and in 2015, there were 56. Reported sexual assaults also decreased, but the rate of violent crime and stabbing homicides increased, and sex trafficking may be on the rise province wide:

  • In 2015, the violent crime rate in Toronto was 1,020 per 100,000 population, an increase of 4.0% from 2014. The Ontario rate was 786/100,000 (no change over 2014), and the national was 1,062/100,000 (a 2.2% increase). Between 1998 and 2015, the rate decreased 25.8% in Toronto, 35.7% in Ontario, and 21.0% in Canada.[10]
  • Stabbing homicide numbers, meanwhile, have increased 157% since 2012, reaching 18 in 2015—a four-year high (there were 15 stabbing homicides in 2014, 14 in 2013, and 7 in 2012).[11]
  • In 2015, Toronto’s reported sexual assault rate decreased by 4.1% over 2014 (versus increases of 0.7% in Ontario and 2.7% in Canada), but at 62.9 per 100,000 population it was higher than the provincial (55.3/100,000), and national (59.6) averages. The decrease in reported sexual assaults between 1998 and 2015 is much lower in Toronto at 7.2% than it is across the province (30.3%) and the country (29.7%).[12]
  • A Toronto Star investigation has found that sex trafficking (forcing young girls and women to work as prostitutes) is one of the fastest growing crimes in the province. The newspaper reports that Toronto police have investigated 359 cases of sex trafficking since 2013.[13]

 

globalToronto’s homicide rate, when compared to some US cities, continues to be low, however, it is higher than the rates in London and Vaughan, ON:

  • As reported to the World Council on City Data (WCCD) in 2015, Toronto had a homicide rate of 2.1 per 100,000 population. Almost on par with the rate in Amsterdam (2.09), but three times lower than the rate in Los Angeles (6.69), and four times lower than the rate in Boston.
  • Toronto’s rate, however, is a third higher that the rate in Vaughan (1.57), and almost double the rate in London (1.14).[14]

 

Number of Homicides, per 100,000 population as Reported to WCCD in 2015 [15]

homicides

Ideas-and-Innovations

 

A new program from the Ontario Government via the Ministry of the Attorney General offer four hours of free legal advice to survivors of sexual assault:

  • The program is being piloted in the City of Toronto, the City of Ottawa, and the District of Thunder Bay.
  •  The service is confidential and for anyone over the age of 16 if the assault occurred in Ontario. * The government is also partnering with the Barbra Schlifer Commemorative Clinic to refer clients for further legal advice and representation. [16]

 

The Region’s youth crime rate continues to decrease:

  • In 2015, the youth crime rate (total charged per 100,000 youths) in the Region was 1,334 per 100,000, down 3.8% from 2014 (when it was 1,386/100,000), and 37.6% lower than the national average (2,137) and 20.2% lower than the provincial average (1,671).
  • The youth crime rate decreased 52% between 2006 and 2015 (from 2,795 per 100,000).[17]

 

The city’s youth crime rate has decreased significantly over the past several years:

  • In 2015, the youth crime rate (total charged per 100,000 youths) in Toronto was 1,638.2, down 2.6% from 2014 when it was 1,681.3, and lower than the national (2,136.8/100,000) and the provincial (1,670.6) averages.
  • The youth crime rate has decreased significantly in the city—by 51.1%—between 2004 (1638.2) and 2015, in keeping with decreases across Ontario (from 1670.6 to 3351.3 representing a decrease of 50.2%) and Canada (from 2136.8 to 3457.3 representing a decrease of 38.2%) during the same period.[18]

 

Alcohol-related driving charges have dropped, but drug-impaired driving charges are way up:

  • According to Toronto Police, as of May 2016 25 drivers had been charged with impairment due to drugs, a 150% increase over 10 charges by May of 2015.
  • Meanwhile, drivers charged with impairment due to alcohol dropped 7%, with 431 charged as of May 2016 compared to 464 by May of the previous year.[19]

 

Although cannabis has not been decriminalized in Canada, dispensaries have been proliferating in Toronto:

  • Between March and May of 2016, the percentage of Torontonians reporting cannabis dispensaries in their neighbourhood doubled, knowledge of dispensaries’ illegality increased, and support for their existence dropped. o A Forum Research telephone survey of 804 randomly sampled Toronto voters on May 16 found that, compared to a previous poll on March 23 (of 904 voters),
  • respondents were more likely to report one or more dispensaries in their neighbourhood (23% versus 11% in March), more likely to report that dispensaries were not legal (32% versus 18%), and less likely to say dispensaries should be allowed to operate (48% versus 57%).
  • 42% didn’t know whether dispensaries were illegal or not.[20]

Trends on Toronto Cannabis Dispensaries, March to May 2016 [21]

dispensary-trends

  • Responses differed by demographics.
  • The presence of dispensaries in the neighbourhood was more likely to be reported by residents of the former city of Toronto (41%), younger respondents (29%), the wealthiest ($100-250k, 31%), and those with children (27%).
  • Males (53%), younger respondents (55%), and the wealthiest ($100-250k, 64%) were more likely to approve of dispensaries being allowed to operate.
  • 53% agreed with the mayor’s statement that the rate of dispensary growth in Toronto is “alarming.” Seniors (65+, 63%), females (57% versus 49% males), and mothers with children under 18 (61%) were more likely to agree.
  • 76% agreed with the mayor’s call for regulation and licensing of dispensaries to keep them away from schools and community centres, and support was strong across all age cohorts, from 67% of 18-34 year olds to 81% of seniors. Strongest agreement came from mothers (85%) and those who live in a neighbourhood with dispensaries (69%).[22]
  • A Globe and Mail report called Toronto the new “cannabis capital,” home as of May 2016 to more than 114 cannabis dispensaries (according to a second-year Osgood Hall law student and dispensary operator who compiled numbers from websites and social media).
    • Although Vancouver had shut down 22 of 100 dispensaries and ordered another 46 to shut down, according to the Prosecution Service of Canada only three Toronto shops had been closed in the previous two years.[23]
  • On May 26, 2016, Toronto police conducted a raid on 43 different shops and arrested 90, resulting in 186 charges and the seizure of approximately 270 kg of cannabis.[24]

 

Torontonians who ride bikes would do best to avoid locking them up on Toronto’s downtown arterial streets—Yonge, Bloor, Bay, College, and Queen:

  • Between January 2010 and June 2015, 18,245 bike thefts were reported to Toronto police. Analysis of these thefts by the Toronto Star shows 367 occurrences on Yonge Street, 296 on Bay, 240 on Bloor Street West, 230 on College, and 214 on Queen Street West.
  • The two most popular target areas for bike thieves are in 52 Division. Police patrol zone 524 (the Financial District) saw 1,494 bike thefts/10,000 residents and 874 occurrences over the five-and-a-half year period. Patrol zone 521 (around Chinatown and the Discovery District) had 945 thefts/10,000 residents and 1,058 occurrences.[25]

 

 

Is there a disconnect between Toronto’s police and the communities they serve?

Half of Torontonians think there is systemic racism in Toronto, and just over half support the “Black Lives Matter” movement:

  • Black Lives Matter Toronto describes itself as “a coalition of Black Torontonians resisting anti-Black racism, state-sponsored violence, police brutality.”[26]
  • An April 2016 Forum Research telephone survey of a random sample of 858 Toronto voters found a majority (55%) of respondents “somewhat” or “very strongly” supported Black Lives Matter. 29% supported it “very strongly.”
  • Some demographics were more likely to support the movement. Support was higher among:
    • females than males (59% versus 50%);
    • 18-34 year olds than seniors (62% versus 47%); and
    • residents of the former city of Toronto and East York than other GTA regions (64% versus 48-54%).

 

Percentage Support for Black Lives Matter By Age, Gender, and Region [27]

blmto

  • Very strong support was higher among university graduates (32%) and those in mid-income brackets ($40-60k; 37%).
  • 50% of respondents, when asked whether they agreed or disagreed that there is systemic racism in Toronto, agreed. 29% disagreed. Agreement was higher among:
    • females than males (55% versus 45%);
    • those under 45 than those aged 45+ (56-58% versus 40-44%); and
    • residents of the former city of Toronto and East York than other GTA regions (54% versus 47-49%).

 

Percentage Agreement With Existence of Systemic Racism By Age, Gender, and Region [28]

systemic-racism

  • Those at the lowest income levels (58%) and those with post-graduate education (53%) were also more likely to agree with the existence of systemic racism.[29]

 

One in three Torontonians believe officers are “above the law,” and four out of five believe officers are treated differently in the justice system, yet 46% would say that “hard-working” best describe the Toronto Police Service:

  • Conducting a poll with 517 adult panelists from the Angus Reid Forum in 2016, CBC News found that, when asked to choose one or more from a list of words that may or may not describe the Toronto Police Service, 46% chose “hardworking.” Another 42% chose “courageous.” But 30% chose “above the law,” and another 24% chose “corrupt.”

 

Reponses to “Which words best describe the Toronto Police Service?”, 2016 [30]

tps

  • The majority of respondents (57%) said that they “completely or slightly trust” police, but one in four (25%) said they “slightly or completely distrust” them.
  • 44% said they “strongly or somewhat disagree with the statement that police are held accountable for their actions on the job.”
  • Almost eight in 10 (79%) said they “strongly or somewhat agreed with the statement that police officers are treated different than ordinary citizens in the justice system.”
  • More than half (54%) of respondents said their view of Toronto police is “somewhat or much worse” after the high-profile incidents. 37% said their view hadn’t changed. 8% said their view had improved.
  • Over half (56%) “somewhat or strongly disagreed with the statement that Toronto police can be trusted to deal with someone who is in a state of mental health crisis” and 53% said they “somewhat or strongly disagree with the statement that police do everything they can to de-escalate encounters with people who are mentally ill.”[31]

 

A focus on police interactions with individuals experiencing mental illness was amongst service deliverables outlined by the Toronto Police Service for 2015, and efforts are underway to modernize the organization:

  • A June 2015 service level review outlined a set of deliverables for the year including:
    • addressing community safety and focusing on interaction with individuals living with mental illness;
    • maintaining an average deployment of 5,260 officers (202 below the approved 5,462);
    • providing security to 263 provincial courthouses; and
    • planning for the arrival of athletes and officials for the Pan Am Games (6%, or $64.9m, of the TPS budget for 2015 went towards the Games).

Toronto Police Service Budget, 2015 [32]

 tps-budget

  • Reported challenges to services included:
    • an aging population (which can impact crime and victimization patterns and services demanded);
    • the increased cost of policing;
    • balancing improvement with decreasing police resources;
    • Toronto’s diversity (requiring officer awareness of different cultures and sensitivities);
    • crime trend changes (e.g., cyber crime such as identity theft and phishing); and
    • a civilian hiring freeze.

 

  • Strategies being used to address both challenges and opportunities included:
    • using social media to increase public awareness of and provide education on issues such as road safety and cyber crimes; and
    • developing and delivering, with involvement from community partners, training on mental health resources to officers who may interact with individuals living with mental illness.[33]

 

  • In February 2016, a Transformational Task Force began working on a plan to modernize the TPS. A June 2016 report includes 24 interim recommendations focused around three goals: “be where the public needs the service the most,” “embrace partnerships to create safe communities,” and “focus on the complex needs of a large city.”
    • Major change in the service delivery model is focused on five areas: how the TPS relates to the public (with a focus on safe communities and neighbourhoods), service delivery (with a shift from primary to priority response to reduce the time officers spend on non-emergency calls), improving access to services (by better aligning the Division map with services provided by the City and community organizations), sustainability and affordability (finding areas for reductions and savings), and culture change (through training).
    • A final report is expected at the end of 2016.[34]

How safe are members of vulnerable populations in the Toronto Region?

 

Hate/bias crimes increased for Toronto’s Muslim community in 2015:

  • Hate/bias crimes are down after an increase in 2014. 134 hate per bias crimes were reported to Toronto Police Services’ Hate Crime Unit in 2015, down 8.2% (from 146) over the previous year, and lower than the average of 143 a year over the past 10 years (2006-2015).
  • From 2006 to 2014, the most frequently targeted communities were the Jewish, Black, and LGBTQ* communities. In 2015, the Jewish community was most victimized, the LGBTQ* community was second, and Muslims third.
    • Hate/bias crimes against Muslims increased, especially in November 2015. Police have speculated the incidents may have been motivated by the ISIL terror attacks in Paris and Syrian refugee resettlement.
  • Most (43%) of the hate/bias crimes in 2015 were motivated by religion, followed by sexual orientation (20%) and race (19%).
    • A third (34%) of the religion-motivated crimes targeted the Muslim community.

Proportion of Reported Hate/Bias Crimes Based on Toronto Police Service Statistics, 2015 [35] by Victimized Community [36]
hate-bias-victimized-groups

Proportion of Reported Hate/Bias Crimes Based on Toronto Police Service Statistics, 2015 [35]  by Motive [37]

hate-bias-category

 

  • The three most reported criminal offences motivated by hate/bias in 2015 were mischief to property (targeting the Jewish community most frequently), assault (targeting the LGBTQ* community most), and criminal harassment (targeting Muslims most).[38]
    • In a national Environics Institute survey (between November 2015 and January 2016) involving telephone interviews with 600 self-identified Muslims in Canada, 33% reported experiencing discrimination. 25% had experienced issues crossing the border.[39]
  • Once again in 2015 there were no reported hate crimes motivated by age, language, disability, or “similar factors” (in similar factors occurrences, hate focuses on members of a group—e.g., a particular ancestry, citizenship, or profession—who have significant points in common and share a trait often integral to their dignity). Stigma may cause under-reporting, however.[40]

 

A pedestrian is hit by a vehicle every four hours in Toronto, and half of those killed as a result are seniors:

  • A Globe and Mail analysis of Toronto Police data shows that pedestrian fatalities have increased by 15% over the past five years compared to the previous five years. From 2011 to 2016 vehicles have killed 163 pedestrians—“more people than can fit in a streetcar.” By mid-2016, a pedestrian had died, on average, every 10 days.
  • Although the number of accidents involving pedestrians has decreased, the proportion resulting in a pedestrian death has increased. Over the past eight years one of every 88 collisions resulted in a death, while over the past three years one of every 52 collisions did.

 

Percentage of Pedestrian Collisions in Toronto Resulting in Fatality, 2005-2015 [41]

collisions-death

  • Most often, victims are over 65, hit by a larger vehicle while crossing an arterial road, without a traffic signal or crosswalk, in the suburbs.
    • When struck by a vehicle at 30-50km/hr, seniors are three to four times more likely to die than those who are younger. Seniors make up 50% of Toronto’s pedestrian fatalities. As the population ages—seniors are expected to comprise 24% of the city’s population by 2041—the trend may only get worse.
    • Over 33% of pedestrian deaths occur on or close to four-lane roads, another 45% are near five- to eight-lane roads.
    • Although cars are responsible for the majority of pedestrian fatalities, 37% are caused by a minivan, pickup truck, van, or SUV, which are heavier and sit higher and tend to hit the torso rather than the legs.
    • 51 of the 163 incidents occurred while the victim was crossing at an intersection. 43% of victims were killed crossing an intersection with no signals or crosswalks.

 

Victim Action at Time of Collision, By Number of Incidents, 2011-2016, Toronto [41]

victim-action

  • Other cities have made changes in an effort to reduce, and even eliminate, pedestrian fatalities.
    • Vancouver has seen fewer than 20 pedestrian fatalities since 2007, a feat attributed to an increased focus on pedestrians as the most vulnerable users of the road. The city’s 2012 pedestrian safety plan prioritized improvements including better traffic signals and longer road-crossing times.
    • Launched after a number of fatalities in 2013, New York’s 63-point Vision Zero program aims to eliminate pedestrian fatalities within a decade with measures including a drop in the default speed limit from 30 miles per hour to 25. 140 speed cameras were installed close to schools, resulting in over a million traffic violations.[42]

 

Toronto sits in the middle of the pack of global cities, when it comes to transportation fatalities:

  • Toronto rate of transportation-related fatalities sits at 1.82 per 100,000 population (as reported to the World Council on City Data or WCCD in 2015). That’s about 20% higher than London’s rate at 1.49, and slightly above the rates for Vaughan (1.57), and Melbourne (1.72).
  • Boston’s transportation fatalities rate at 3.81 per 100,000 is more than double Toronto’s rate.[43]

 

Transportation Fatalities, per 100,000 population, as Reported to WCCD in 2015 [44]

transportation-fatalities

The City has implemented a pilot project that puts police officers in high-traffic intersections:

  • In June 2016 the City began a four-month, $250,000 pilot project deploying police offers to direct traffic in busy intersections including those on Bay Street from Bloor to Front, Front and Simcoe, Front and University, University and Adelaide, Yonge and Sheppard, and Lake Shore Boulevard and Parklawn Road.
  • Although the pilot is meant to help ease congestion, the City’s evaluation will look not only at traffic flow, but also at illegal turns by vehicles and compliance with traffic rules by pedestrians and cyclists.[45]

 

Researchers have counted over 400 incidents over 12 years of motor vehicle collisions involving children and observed driver behaviours that put children in danger near Toronto elementary schools:

  • A 2016 study published in the Traffic Injury Prevention journal combined 12 years (2000-2011) of Toronto pedestrian/motor vehicle collision data with a one-day 2011 observation of driving behaviours at 118 JK–Grade 6 schools in the Toronto District School Board.
  • The collision data showed that over the 12-year period, 411 child pedestrian/motor vehicle collisions occurred within 200m of these schools, 45 of which occurred during “school travel times” (8-9am, 11:30am-1pm, and 3-4:15pm).
  • The observational data showed three most frequent dangerous behaviours: dropping children on the opposite side of the street (observed at 70% of schools), cars stopping and blocking the vision of other drivers and pedestrians (at 62% of schools), and double-parking (at 46%).
    • Two or more of these behaviours were observed at 88% of the schools. None were observed at only 9%.[46]
  • The Toronto Catholic District School Board, meanwhile, is creating a pilot project to designate safe drop-off areas away from schools and encouraging children to walk to school in groups.[47]

 

Jennifer Keesmaat, Toronto’s Chief Planner, does a Ted Talk about the importance of children walking to school:

Sex crimes are being reported more often:

  • An analysis by The Toronto Star of police data and Statistics Canada census data from January 2004 to June 2014 shows that although overall crime rates in Toronto decreased by 34% during the period, sexual offences increased by 29%. More than 21,000 sexual offences were reported.
    • Sexual offences comprise more than rape (e.g., pushing a victim against a wall and fondling them is a sexual offence). The majority of these crimes are never reported.
    • Advocacy groups attribute the increase in reporting to community outreach and education. Criminologist Rosemary Gartner also attributes reduced stigma of victims and more public awareness of, and openness to talking about, sexual violence.
    • Since 2007, the number of sexual offences reported annually has increased 44%, from 1,313 to 1,890 (this data obtained with a freedom of information request).
    • The highest incidences of sexual offences per 1,000 residents are in 51 and 52 divisions, located in central Toronto.[48]

Reported Sexual Offences, By Police Division and Patrol Zone, Toronto, 2004-June 2015 [49]

sexual-offenses

Toronto Transit Commission is partnering with the Toronto Police Services and METRAC to create an app for reporting harassment and assault on public transit.

  • The app automatically disables flash and the click sound so users can take photos discretely and attach them to the report.[50]

 

 


 

To learn more about innovative community-based organizations and programs working to address issues relating to health and wellness, check out ckc.torontofoundation.ca.

 

 


 

 

 

[1] Ipsos Reid. (2013) Walking Habits and Attitudes Report: City of Toronto. Last accessed July 22, 2015, from http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Transportation%20Services/Walking/Files/pdf/2013-04-24-cot-walking-habits-and-attitudes.pdf.

[2] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2015). Juristat, Police-reported Crime Statistics in Canada, 2014. Last accessed September 2, 2015 from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2015001/article/14211-eng.pdf.

[3] http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2016001/article/14642-eng.pdf

[4] NVS Table II – 8: Overall Crime per 100,000 Population

[5] NVS Table II-6: Overall Crime Severity Index.

[6] http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2016001/article/14642-eng.pdf

[7] NVS Table II-1: Total Violent Criminal Code Violations Per 100,000 Population

[8] http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2016001/article/14642-eng.pdf

[9] http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2016001/article/14642-eng.pdf

[10] NVS Table II-1: Total Violent Criminal Code Violations per 100,000 People

[11] Toronto Police Service. TPS Crime Statistics (April 2016). Last accessed April 19, 2016 from http://www.torontopolice.on.ca/statistics/ytd_stats.php.

[12] NVS Table II-7: Total Sexual Assaults per 100,000 Population.

[13] Carville O. (2016). The Game: Living Hell in hotel chains. thestar.com. Last accessed July 8, 2016 from: http://projects.thestar.com/human-sex-trafficking-ontario-canada/.

[14] World Council on City Data: WCCD Open City Data Portal. (2015). Last accessed August 27, 2016, from http://open.dataforcities.org/. Visit this portal to find further data on this and other subjects for these and other cities.

[15] World Council on City Data: WCCD Open City Data Portal. (2015). Last accessed August 27, 2016, from http://open.dataforcities.org/. Visit this portal to find further data on this and other subjects for these and other cities.

[16] Ministry of the Attorney General. Independent Legal Advice for Sexual Assault Survivors Pilot Program (July 13, 2016). Last accessed July 28, 2016 from https://www.attorneygeneral.jus.gov.on.ca/english/ovss/ila.php.

[17] NVS Table VI-6: Youth Crime Rate (Total Charged per 100,000 Youths).

[18] NVS Table II-10 -a: Youth Crime Rate (total charged per 100,000 youths)

[19] CBC News. (2016, May 9). Drug – impaired driving charges up 150% this year, Toronto police say. Last accessed May 10, 2016 from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/drugs-impaired-driving-charges-1.3573173

[20] Forum Research Inc. (May 19, 2016). Dispensaries Double In Two Months. Last accessed May 24, 2016 from http://poll.forumresearch.com/data/cb22d7a5-c2f9-413f-a987-e7c74261c9ffTO%20Dispensaries%20News%20Release%20(2016%2005%2017)%20Forum%20Research.pdf

[21] Forum Research Inc. (May 19, 2016). Dispensaries Double In Two Months. Last accessed May 24, 2016 from http://poll.forumresearch.com/data/cb22d7a5-c2f9-413f-a987-e7c74261c9ffTO%20Dispensaries%20News%20Release%20(2016%2005%2017)%20Forum%20Research.pdf

[22] Forum Research Inc. (May 19, 2016). Dispensaries Double In Two Months. Last accessed May 24, 2016 from http://poll.forumresearch.com/data/cb22d7a5-c2f9-413f-a987-e7c74261c9ffTO%20Dispensaries%20News%20Release%20(2016%2005%2017)%20Forum%20Research.pdf

[23] Hager, M. (2016, May 6). Toronto overtakes Vancouver as country’s cannabis capital. The Globe and Mail. Last accessed May 10, 2016 from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/toronto/toronto-overtakes-vancouver-as-countrys-cannabis-capital/article29932025/

[24] Lucas Powers. (May 31, 2016). Marijuana shop raids in Toronto spark more confusion ahead of legalization. CBC News. Last accessed September 1, 2016 from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/cannabis-toronto-raids-vancouver-legal-1.3607305.

[25] Michael Robinson and William Davis. (April 25, 2016). Bike theft: Toronto’s worst streets to lock up your wheels. Toronto Star. Last accessed September 1, 2016 from https://www.thestar.com/news/gta/transportation/2016/04/25/bike-theft-here-are-the-worst-streets-for-locking-up-your-bike-in-toronto.html

[26] Black Lives Matter. Facebook page. Last accessed August 31, 2016 from https://www.facebook.com/blacklivesmatterTO.

[27] Forum Research Inc. (April 13, 2016). Majority supports Black Lives Matter. Last accessed May 24, 2016 from http://poll.forumresearch.com/data/4683a01c-da53-4af3-9fe5-576f810ce766TO%20Black%20Lives%20Matter%20News%20Release%20(2016%2004%2013)%20Forum%20Research.pdf.

[28] Forum Research Inc. (April 13, 2016). Majority supports Black Lives Matter. Last accessed May 24, 2016 from http://poll.forumresearch.com/data/4683a01c-da53-4af3-9fe5-576f810ce766TO%20Black%20Lives%20Matter%20News%20Release%20(2016%2004%2013)%20Forum%20Research.pdf.

[29] Forum Research Inc. (April 13, 2016). Majority supports Black Lives Matter. Last accessed May 24, 2016 from http://poll.forumresearch.com/data/4683a01c-da53-4af3-9fe5-576f810ce766TO%20Black%20Lives%20Matter%20News%20Release%20(2016%2004%2013)%20Forum%20Research.pdf.

[30] CBC News. (February 3, 2016). Most believe Toronto police treated differently in justice system: poll. CBC News. Last accessed February 29, 2016 from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/toronto-police-poll-1.3431175.

[31] CBC News. (February 3, 2016). Most believe Toronto police treated differently in justice system: poll. CBC News. Last accessed February 29, 2016 from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/toronto-police-poll-1.3431175.

[32] Toronto Police Service. (June 30, 2015). Service Level Review, p. 6. Last accessed February 29, 2016 from http://www.toronto.ca/legdocs/mmis/2015/ex/bgrd/backgroundfile-81839.pdf

[33] Toronto Police Service. (June 30, 2015). Service Level Review, p. 6. Last accessed February 29, 2016 from http://www.toronto.ca/legdocs/mmis/2015/ex/bgrd/backgroundfile-81839.pdf

[34] Toronto Police Service. (2016, June). The Way Forward: Modernizing Community Safety in Toronto. Last accessed July 7, 2016 from http://www.torontopolice.on.ca/TheWayForward/docs/report_full.pdf.

[35] Toronto Police Service. Hate Crime Report (March 2016). Last accessed April 19, 2016 from https://www.torontopolice.on.ca/publications/files/reports/2015hatecrimereport.pdf.

[36] Toronto Police Service. Hate Crime Report (March 2016). Last accessed April 19, 2016 from https://www.torontopolice.on.ca/publications/files/reports/2015hatecrimereport.pdf.

[37] Toronto Police Service. Hate Crime Report (March 2016). Last accessed April 19, 2016 from https://www.torontopolice.on.ca/publications/files/reports/2015hatecrimereport.pdf.

[38] Toronto Police Service. Hate Crime Report (March 2016). Last accessed April 19, 2016 from https://www.torontopolice.on.ca/publications/files/reports/2015hatecrimereport.pdf.

[39] The Environics Institute for Survey Research. (2016). Survey of Muslims in Canada 2016. Last accessed May 10,2016 from: http://www.environicsinstitute.org/uploads/institute-projects/survey%20of%20muslims%20in%20canada%202016%20-%20final%20report.pdf.

[40] Toronto Police Service. Hate Crime Report (March 2016). Last accessed April 19, 2016 from https://www.torontopolice.on.ca/publications/files/reports/2015hatecrimereport.pdf.

[41] Oliver Moore. Fatal Crossings. (June 10, 2016). The Globe and Mail. Last accessed June 14, 2016 from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/toronto/more-than-160-pedestrians-killed-by-vehicles-since-2011/article30391640/.

[42] Oliver Moore. Fatal Crossings. (June 10, 2016). The Globe and Mail. Last accessed June 14, 2016 from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/toronto/more-than-160-pedestrians-killed-by-vehicles-since-2011/article30391640/.

[43] World Council on City Data: WCCD Open City Data Portal. (2015). Last accessed August 26, 2016, from http://open.dataforcities.org/. Visit this portal to find further data on this and other subjects for these and other cities.

[44] World Council on City Data: WCCD Open City Data Portal. (2015). Last accessed August 26, 2016, from http://open.dataforcities.org/. Visit this portal to find further data on this and other subjects for these and other cities.

[45] CBC News. (June 6, 2016). Police to direct traffic at busy intersections in pilot project. Last accessed September 1, 2016 from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/tory-traffic-intersections-1.3617839.

[46] Rothman, Linda; Howard, Andrew; Buliung, Ron; Macarthur, Colin; and Macpherson, Alison. (January 13, 2016). Dangerous student car drop-off behaviours and child pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions: an observational study. Last accessed February 1, 2016 from http://news.yorku.ca/files/driver-behaviour.pdf

[47] CBC News. (January 21, 2016). Driving your kids to school puts other children at risk, new study finds. CBC News. Last accessed February 1, 2016 from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/dangerous-driving-toronto-schools-1.3414226

[48] Robinson, Michael. (February 8, 2016). Sex crimes getting reported more in Toronto: analysis. Toronto Star. Last accessed February 29, 2016 from http://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2016/02/08/sex-crimes-getting-reported-more-in-toronto-study.html

[49] Robinson, Michael. (February 8, 2016). Sex crimes getting reported more in Toronto: analysis. Toronto Star. Last accessed February 29, 2016 from http://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2016/02/08/sex-crimes-getting-reported-more-in-toronto-study.html

[50] Ward, Linda. TTC to develop new app that would enable riders to report harassment (July 12, 2016). CBC News. Last accessed July 28, 2016 from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/ttc-women-s-safety-1.3673340