Learning

Why is this important?

An educated labour force is more critical than ever as the labour market shifts to a focus on knowledge work. But learning is affected by many factors (including poverty, mental and physical health, safety and the presence of necessary supports). Schools with librarians and daycares, arts programs, and robust physical education give children lifelong advantages.

 

What are the trends?

Both the availability and affordability of childcare in Toronto are challenges. Fewer of the Region’s public elementary schools are employing music teachers and full-time teacher librarians, and special education students are not always receiving the supports they need. Five-year graduation rates in the Toronto District School Board have increased steadily over the past 10 years. Toronto is home to some of the world’s best and most reputable high education institutions.

 

What’s new?

Of 27 Canadian cities examined, Toronto has the most expensive childcare costs. Principals are reporting a need for more mental health professionals in their schools. The Toronto District School Board lost hundreds of students over the Province’s new sex ed curriculum. Nonetheless, the number of Toronto students graduating reached an all-time high in 2015. Although Toronto’s schools offer little in the way of Indigenous education, Torontonians are far more likely to learn about Aboriginal peoples through education than they were several years ago. The Economist has ranked the MBA programs at York and Ryerson among the top 100 in the world, and York is expanding to Markham.

 

 

How are Toronto’s public schools faring?

 

The Toronto District School Board (TDSB) presented a balanced 2016–17 operating budget in May 2016:

  • TDSB has an annual operating budget of approximately $3.1B.
  • The budget is divided into the following categories: instruction (78.9%), school operations (14.9%), administration (2.8%), transportation (1.9%) and other operating costs (1.5%). Staff salaries and benefits represent approximately 83% of total expenses.
  • The approved budget plan also includes $5.8 million of savings to be found in year. Staff will continue to review operational expenditures to look for efficiencies.[1]

 

The Toronto Catholic District School Board has made $16.4m in cuts to balance its budget:

  • 118 fewer staff members are expected in Toronto’s Catholic schools in fall 2016, including 56 education assistants, six vice-principals, 10 student supervisors, 21 reading specialists and five child/youth workers whose positions were eliminated.[2]

 

Fewer of the Toronto Region’s public elementary schools employed music teachers and full-time teacher librarians in 2015-16:

  • People for Education conducts an annual school survey of Ontario’s publicly funded elementary and secondary schools. In the 2015-16 school year, 1,154 of 4,900 schools responded (including 247 Toronto Catholic, public, and French schools).
  • 56% of elementary schools reported having a music teacher in 2015-16 (down from 66% in 2014-15 and 58% in 2013-14); 35% had a full-time music teacher (down from 43% in 2014-15 and 37% in 2013-14).
    • 76% of Toronto elementary schools report having an itinerant music teacher.
  • 24% of schools with grades 7 and 8 had a visual arts teacher and only 17% had a drama teacher.
  • 92% of Toronto elementary schools have a health and physical education teacher. 62% of those schools employ these teachers full-time (down from 63% the previous year).[3]
  • The percentage of Toronto elementary schools with full-time teacher-librarians decreased to 15% in the 2015-16 school year from 17% in 2014-15. Rates are far below those seen pre-recession (24% in 2008-09).
  • Funding cuts have resulted in cuts to teacher-librarian positions. The Toronto Catholic District School Board, for example, cut teacher-librarian positions in elementary schools to manage a $42.55m budget deficit.
  • At the same time there has been an increase in librarian technicians, who perform a support role. 64% of elementary schools with a teacher-librarian also have a librarian technician.
  • Exposure to arts education for young people can build capacity for imaginative and critical thinking and open-mindedness, important skills for living productive lives as adults.
    • 76% of Toronto elementary schools report having an itinerant music teacher.
    • 24% of schools with grades 7 and 8 have a visual arts teacher and only 17% have a drama teacher.[4]

 

Special education students are not always receiving the supports they need:

  • Every participating elementary and secondary school in People for Education’s 2015-16 school survey reported that some students receive some form of special education assistance.
    • 15% of Toronto’s elementary students receive special education services and supports.
    • Special education needs vary widely, from students who need only minor accommodations such as use of a laptop or additional time to take tests to those who need significant help to communicate or participate in school life.[5]
  • Toronto schools are more likely to have special education teachers than schools in the rest of the province, but changes to funding for special education have meant reductions for some Toronto boards.[6] 19% of elementary schools in Toronto report that not all special education students are receiving their recommended supports.
  • On average, six elementary students and six secondary school students per school are waiting to be assessed for special education supports, but 30% of elementary schools and 27% of secondary schools report that there is a restriction on the number of students they can place on wait lists for assessment.
  • 93% of elementary schools and 97% of secondary schools have assistants who support special education classes by helping students with lessons, personal hygiene, and behavioural modification.
    • 20% of elementary and 44% of secondary schools in Toronto report that the majority of their educational assistants have an additional post-secondary qualification in special education. But comments from the survey suggest a need for more teacher training in special needs to foster an inclusive environment in the classroom.[7]

 

Principals are reporting a need for more mental health professionals:

  • Boards often employ specialist staff—psychologists, social workers, or child and youth workers—to help students overcome mental health challenges.
  • Although the majority of Toronto schools participating in People for Education’s 2015-16 school survey reported having a regularly scheduled social worker (85% of elementary and 94% of secondary schools), far fewer reported having a regularly scheduled child and youth worker (21% of elementary and 60% of secondary schools).
  • Half of schools reported having a regularly scheduled psychologist (51% of elementary and 54% of secondary schools).
  • According to People for Education’s report, many principals feel they are underserved and that there is a need for more mental health professionals in their schools.[8]
  • Guidance counsellors also play a big role in students’ mental health, but they do not exist in most Ontario elementary schools.
    • All participating secondary schools in Toronto reported having a guidance counsellor, and 98% reported having a full-time guidance counsellor.
    • Toronto schools ranked seven activities based on the amount of time a guidance counsellor spends on them. Supporting academic achievement (47%) and supporting mental health (22%) were the two activities reported to consume the most time for guidance counsellors, who on average are responsible for 370 students.[9]
    • People for Education found that only 17% of elementary schools across the province have at least a part-time guidance counsellor.[10]
    • Toronto’s grade 7-8 schools are far more likely to report having a guidance counsellor than those elsewhere in Ontario (85% versus 25% respectively).[11]

 

Declining enrollment in TDSB schools continued in 2015. There were approximately 242,000 students in 2015-16, compared to 246,000 the previous year.[12]

  • projecting

    While elementary enrollment declined by 465 students between the 2011-12 and 2015-16 school years, TDSB is projecting moderate growth of approximately 1,000 students over the next 10 years thanks to birth and migration rate changes.

  • Secondary school enrollment declined by 11,703 students between 2011-12 and 2015-16, consistent with the decline in elementary enrollment over the past decade. The decline is projected to continue for another five years (until 2021), and then enrollment is expected to increase.[13]
  • According to TDSB chair Robin Pilkey, the Board lost 2,500 students in Fall 2015 because some parents pulled their children out of school over Ontario’s new sex education curriculum. The Board was expecting 3,500 fewer students in Fall 2016 (including the 2,500 lost last year).[14]
  • In June 2016, the TDSB officially announced their decision to close three high schools: Eastern Commerce Collegiate Institute, Nelson A. Boylen Collegiate Institute and Sir Robert L. Borden Business and Technical Institute.[15]

 

The number of TDSB students graduating reached an all-time high in 2015:

  • The Toronto District School Board’s five-year graduation rate was 85% for the 2010-2015 cohort (1% higher than among the 2009-2014 cohort).
    • Of a total of 16,390 students in the 2010-2015 cohort as of October 31, 2015, 13,923 (85%) had graduated, 817 (5%) were still enrolled, and 1,650 (10%) had dropped out.
  • The cohort graduation rates have increased steadily over the past 10 years. Graduation rates have increased by 16 percentage points (from 69% of students) since the TDSB began tracking them in 2000.

 

TDSB Five-Year Graduation Rates, 2000-2005 to 2010-2015 Cohorts [16]

graduation-rates

 

  • The province’s five-year graduation rate has also slightly increased in the last several years. In 2015 85.5% of students graduated in five years, up from 68% a decade earlier.[17]
  • It should be noted that school boards and the Ministry of Education use different methods to calculate graduation rates. According to the Ministry, the TDSB’s published rates should be lower, while the Board disputes the accuracy of the Ministry’s method.[18]

 

How do socio-economic and cultural inequities affect access to learning?

While the numbers of licensed childcare spaces are increasing, and the number of children waiting for space is declining, there are still not enough availability of supports to meet the needs of families:

  • The number of licensed spaces located in childcare centres and in private homes managed by home child care agencies reported by the City in May 2014 was approximately 60,924.[19] In June 2015 the estimated number was 64,740,[20] and in June 2016 it was 69,270.[21]
  • The number of children on the waiting list for a childcare subsidy has been declining over the last few years. In May 2014, there were 16,873 children on the list, [22] in June 2015, there were 17,838 on the list, and in June 2016,[23] there were 13,959 on the list.[24]

 

Of 27 Canadian cities examined, Toronto has the most expensive childcare costs—requiring almost half of a family’s income:

  • A 2015 Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (CCPA) report shows that childcare fees would eat up 48% of the median income for Toronto families with young children ($58,500).
  • The median full-day childcare fee in Toronto is $1,033/month for preschoolers (3-5 years of age), $1,325/month for toddlers (1.5-3 years), and $1,736/month for infants (under 18 months). Compared to figures from research conducted a year earlier, fees have increased 5% from 2014.
  • Although Toronto’s fees are higher in all three age categories than in 27 other Canadian cities, the magnitude of the difference is greatest for infants.
    • St. John’s has the second-highest infant fees at $1,400/month ($336 less).
    • Ottawa has the second-highest toddler rate at $1,194/month ($131 less).
    • Markham has the second-highest preschooler fees at $1,000/month ($33 less).
  • Fees were lowest in cities in Quebec, where government caps fees and provides subsidies.
  • The report suggests adding close to a million childcare spaces and increasing government subsidies (both of which would require Federal coordination).[25]

 

Median Infant Fees (Monthly), Selected Canadian Cities, 2015:
median-infant

Median Toddler Fees (Monthly), Selected Canadian Cities, 2015:

median-toddler

Median Preschooler Fees (Monthly), Selected Canadian Cities, 2015 [26]

2015_child_care_shareable_sm

 

All students in Canada would benefit from a deeper understanding of the history of the many nations that have influenced and comprise this country and a better understanding of Indigenous cultures, perspectives, and experiences. Yet Toronto’s schools offer little in the way of Indigenous education, especially at the elementary school level:

  • People for Education’s annual school survey shows that just 27% of Toronto’s secondary schools and 2% of elementary schools offer programs in Native Studies.
  • 30% of secondary schools and 11% of elementary schools have a designated staff member (other than the principal and vice-principal) who coordinates Indigenous education in their school.
  • 21% of secondary schools and 11% of elementary schools offer relevant professional development opportunities for staff.
  • 24% of secondary schools and 4% of elementary schools hold Indigenous cultural ceremonies.
  • 9% of secondary schools offer post-secondary outreach to Indigenous students.
  • Nonetheless, Toronto residents are far more likely to learn about Aboriginal peoples through education than they were several years ago.
    • An Environics survey released in 2016 has found that, compared to 2009, Canada’s non-Aboriginal urban residents are more likely to learn about Aboriginal peoples through school and education (the change in Toronto is an increase of 11 percentage points) and far less likely to rely on the media to learn about Aboriginal peoples (Toronto’s drop was 19 percentage points, Vancouver’s 20 points, and Calgary’s 15). Torontonians are also optimistic (76% said they are very or somewhat optimistic) for a reconciliation between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples in Canada.[27]

 

The Toronto District School Board has approved a plan for a K-12 First Nations school:

  • The curriculum will tell the story of Toronto’s Indigenous population and history. It will enhance the Canadian history component and close the opportunity gap for Indigenous students.
  • The announcement of this new school follows the release of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada report which recommended educational reform.[28]
  • There already is a First Nations School in Toronto, serving students in grades K – 8. It’s been around since the early 1970’s, and has been a part of the TDSB since 1977.

 

Torontonians are increasingly completing post-secondary education:

  • Almost 60% of the Region’s population over the age of 15 has completed post-secondary education:
  • In 2015, 58.8% of the population in the Toronto Region aged 15 and older had a post-secondary degree, diploma or certificate, up from 55% in 2010 and greater than both the provincial (55.6%) and national (55.4%) averages.[29]
  • In the city of Toronto in 2015, 70.75% of the labour force had a post-secondary diploma or degree. In 1990, that figure was just 41.4%.[30]

 

Percent of Labour Force with Post-Secondary Education, City of Toronto, 1990 to 2015 [31]

post-secondary

 

  • Total funded full-time enrollments for the Region’s colleges (Centennial, George Brown, Humber, Seneca, and Sheridan) in 2014-15 were 93,183.8.[32]
  • In 2015, 155,020 full-time students and 30,140 part-time undergraduate and graduate students were enrolled in the Region’s universities (OCADU, Ryerson, University of Toronto and York).[33]
    • In 2014-15, the average cost of university undergraduate tuition in the Toronto Region was $6,766.13 for Canadian students and $20,857.63 for international students.[34]

 

Are Toronto’s post-secondary institutions preparing students for the future?

Toronto is home to one of the world’s best and most reputable universities:

  • globalThe University of Toronto (U of T) is the 19th best university in the world and the best in Canada according to Times Higher Education’s World University Rankings 2015-2016.
    • Rankings are based on a number of performance indicators, including faculty-to-student ratios, international mix, resources, and research excellence.
    • The University of British Columbia ranked second in Canada and 34th in the world. McGill ranked 38th in the world.
  • The London-based higher education magazine also conducted a World Reputation Rankings survey in which U of T ranked first in Canada and 23rd in the world.
    • The invitation-only survey, conducted between January and March 2016, received 10,323 responses from experienced and published scholars from 133 countries. They were asked to rank a maximum of 15 of the best universities in various categories including research and teaching.[35]

 

U of T grads are the 10th most employable in the world:

  • globalThe Global Employability University Ranking, a survey conducted by French human resources group Emerging Associates and a German research group called Trendence, has rated U of T grads the 10th most employable in the world in 2015, up from 13th in 2014.
  • McGill was the second-highest ranked Canadian university, in 21st place,[36] (up from 28th in 2014).
  • The online survey was conducted between April and August 2015. Respondents were approximately 2,200 recruiters and 2,400 managing directors of international companies or subsidiaries from 21 countries recognized as major players in higher education (students from these countries comprise more than 80% of students worldwide and the countries have at least one internationally recognized university).
    • Rankings were based on respondents’ votes for which institutions, from a list of local and global universities, produced the most employable graduates.[37]

 

The Economist has ranked the MBA programs at York and Ryerson among the top 100 in the world:

  •  The MBA programs at York University’s Schulich School of Business and at Ryerson’s Ted Rogers School of Management ranked 46th and 92nd respectively on The Economist’s list of the world’s 100 best full-time MBA programs. They are two of the six schools in Canada that made the list.[38]
    • Rankings were based on school and student/alumni ratings of four criteria: open to new opportunities (e.g., student assessment of career services), personal development/educational experience (e.g., student diversity), salary increase after graduating, and potential for networking.
    • The top 100 schools were chosen from 118 that provided sufficient information to be considered for ranking after 135 leading global business schools were invited to take part in the survey.[39]

 

York University is expanding to Markham to help the city’s growing population better access education:

  • The Province has announced Markham Centre as the location for a New York University campus. The location will provide easy access to transit, major employers, research centres and the new Markham Pan Am Centre.
    • To bring the state-of-the-art campus to the York Region locale, the university is partnering with the City of Markham (which is donating the land), the Regional Municipality of York (which has committed $25m), and Seneca College (with which several programs will be offered in collaboration). York University’s share of funding for the project is $45m.[40]

 

Rendering of York University–Markham Centre [41]

 yorku-markham

 

  • 4,000 students are expected in the campus’ initial phase. Some projections estimate 5,000 students enrolled within the first five years and 10,000 students within 20 years.
    • York Region’s population is expected to grow to 1.5 million by 2031.[42]
  • The campus will offer degree programs in eight fields of study: arts, media, performance and design, business, education, environmental studies, information technology and software, liberal arts, life sciences, and continuing education. It is expected to create 400 new on-campus jobs, $500m in economic benefits from construction alone, and $37m annually when the campus is fully functional.[43]

 

Projected York University–Markham Centre Impacts [44]

Screen Shot 2016-09-10 at 5.55.30 PM

 

Compared to other global cities, Toronto’s population is highly educated:

  • globalWith a rate of 47,014 per 100,000 population (as reported to the World Council on City Data or WCCD in 2015), Torontonians possess more higher education degrees per 100,000 population than residents of Melbourne, which held the number one spot ahead of Toronto in 2014, but slipped to second in 2015 (46,631), Vaughan, ON (45,093), Boston (37,863), London (33,136), Amsterdam (31,600), and Los Angeles (24,100).
  • Toronto’s higher education degrees rate in 2015 is up 2.5% from the 45,875 per 100,000 population reported in 2014.[45]

Number of Higher Education Degrees per 100,000 Population, as Reported to WCCD in 2015 [46]

higher-ed

Given a choice, 8% more of Toronto’s youth would rather learn online than on location in a physical school:

  • According to a global youth survey by The Economist’s Intelligence Unit, youth around the world have a rising interest in online learning.
  • The percentage difference between Toronto youth (150 between 18 and 25 participated) who are currently learning online and those who would prefer to is 8%.

 

OCADU houses the “new MBA” – the Strategic Foresight and Innovation Master of Design:

  • With an aim to creating leaders who are strategists, and who see the world from a human perspective and re-think what is possible, and who will be the innovators of the future to make the world a better place.
  • Students develop design-thinking skills that include analysis, synthesis and strategic and creative thinking, which are critical for professionals in the public, private and voluntary sectors.[47]

 

The City Institute at York University is an interdisciplinary institute that facilitates critical and collaborative research:

  • This innovative institute celebrated in 2016 ten years of bringing together over 60 of the university’s urban scholars and scores of graduate students from fields as diverse as planning, geography, environmental studies, anthropology, sociology, political science, education, law, transportation and the humanities.
  • The research centre facilitates the development of new knowledge and innovative approaches to understanding and addressing the complexity of the current urban context.[48]

 

George Brown College’s YouTube Space offers video creators free access to the tech tools they need:

  • Opened in April 2016, the 3,500 sq. ft. location is the ninth YouTube space in the world (other locations include New York, London, and Los Angeles) and the first in Canada.
  • The spaces provide free, high-tech resources to create web content, including microphones, lights, and cameras.[49]

 


 

To learn more about innovative community-based organizations and programs working to address issues relating to health and wellness, check out ckc.torontofoundation.ca.

 

 


 

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[2] https://www.thestar.com/yourtoronto/education/2016/06/04/toronto-catholic-board-cuts-16-million.html

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[4] People for Education. (2016). Special Report for Vital Signs 2016, results from Annual Survey of Ontario Schools 2016. Special request.

[5] People for Education. (2016). Special Report for Vital Signs 2016, results from Annual Survey of Ontario Schools 2016. Special request.

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[7] People for Education. (2016). Special Report for Vital Signs 2016, results from Annual Survey of Ontario Schools 2016. Special request.

[8] People for Education. (2016). Special Report for Vital Signs 2016, results from Annual Survey of Ontario Schools 2016. Special request.

[9] People for Education. (2016). Special Report for Vital Signs 2016, results from Annual Survey of Ontario Schools 2016. Special request.

[10] https://www.thestar.com/yourtoronto/education/2016/03/07/guidance-counsellors-missing-completely-from-most-elementary-schools-report.html

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[12] TDSB. (n.d.). Balancing the 2016-2017 Operating Budget, Ward Forum Presentation. Last accessed September 2, 2016 from http://www.tdsb.on.ca/Portals/0/AboutUs/Budget/Balancing%20the%20Operating%20Budget%20Ward%20Forum%20Presentation%20Feb%2026.pdf

[13] TDSB. (January 2016). TDSB Financial Facts: Revenue and Expenditure Trends. Last accessed September 2, 2016 from http://www.tdsb.on.ca/Portals/0/AboutUs/Budget/FINAL%20Financial%20Facts%202016.02.05.pdf

[14] CBC News. Sex-ed curriculum partially to blame for declining school enrolment, TDSB chair says (March 11, 2016). Last accessed July 9, 2016 from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/programs/metromorning/sex-ed-enrolment-drop-1.3486030

[15] CBC News. (June 24, 2016). TDSB officially closing 3 schools in 2016: Low enrolment to blame, board spokesman says. Last accessed July 6, 2016 from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/tdsb-schools-closing-1.3651461.

[16] Toronto District School Board (TDSB). 2016. TDSB Graduation Rates at All-Time high: 2010-2015 Graduation Rate. Last accessed from: http://www.tdsb.on.ca/Portals/research/docs/reports/Grad%20Rates%202016%20-%20Fact%20Sheet%20-%20FINAL.pdf

[17] Ontario Ministry of Education. (2016). Getting Results, Ontario’s Graduation Rate. Last accessed May 10,2016 from: http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/gettingResultsGrad.html

[18] Toronto Star. (2015). Ontario’s graduation rates a formula for controversy. Last accessed September 20, 2015 from http://www.thestar.com/yourtoronto/education/2015/03/22/ontarios-graduation-rates-a-formula-for-controversy.html.

[19] City of Toronto. Early Learning and Care in Toronto. (May 2014). Last accessed August 28, 2016 from http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Children’s%20Services/Files/pdf/C/childcare_factsheet_may2014.pdf.

[20] City of Toronto. (2015). Early Learning and Care in Toronto – January 2015. Last accessed September 23, 2015 from https://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Children’s%20Services/Files/pdf/C/childcare_factsheet_jan2015.pdf.

[21] City of Toronto. Early Learning and Care in Toronto. (June 2016). Last accessed August 28, 2016 from http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Children’s%20Services/Files/pdf/C/childcare_factsheet.pdf.

[22] City of Toronto. Early Learning and Care in Toronto. (May 2014). Last accessed August 28, 2016 from http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Children’s%20Services/Files/pdf/C/childcare_factsheet_may2014.pdf.

[23] City of Toronto. (2015). Early Learning and Care in Toronto. Last accessed September 23, 2015 from http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Children’s%20Services/Files/pdf/C/childcare_factsheet_june_2015.pdf.

[24] City of Toronto. Early Learning and Care in Toronto. (June 2016). Last accessed August 28, 2016 from http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Children’s%20Services/Files/pdf/C/childcare_factsheet.pdf.

[25] Macdonald, David and Klinger, Thea. (December 10, 2015). They Go Up So Fast: 2015 Child Care Fees in Canadian Cities. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. Last accessed February 1, 2016 from https://www.policyalternatives.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/publications/National%20Office/2015/12/They_Go_Up_So_Fast_2015_Child_Care_Fees_in_Canadian_Cities.pdf

[26] Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. (2015). They go up so fast. Last accessed August 29, 2016 from https://www.policyalternatives.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/publications/2015_child_care_shareable_sm.jpg

[27] Environics Institute for Survey Research (2016, June). Canadian Public Opinion on Aboriginal Peoples. Last accessed July 4, 2016 from http://www.philanthropyandaboriginalpeoples.ca/wp-content/uploads/Canadian-Public-Opinion-on-Aboriginal-Peoples-2016-FINAL-REPORT.pdf

[28] Mangione, Kendra. (June 18, 2015). TDSB approves plan for K-12 First Nations School. CTV News. Last accessed February 8, 2016 from http://toronto.ctvnews.ca/tdsb-approves-plan-for-k-12-first-nations-school-1.2429011

[29] Table IV-1-a: Educational attainment: Post-secondary education (percent aged 15 and over with university degree, post-secondary certificate or diploma)

[30] City of Toronto. Division of Economic Development and Culture. Special request.

[31] City of Toronto. Division of Economic Development and Culture. Special request.

[32] Colleges Ontario (2016). Environmental Scan: Student and Graduate Profiles 2016. http://www.collegesontario.org/research/2016_Environmental_Scan/CO_EnvScan_2016_PROFILES_WEB.pdf (last accessed August 2016)

[33] NVS Table VI-7-a: University enrollment (by university).

[34] NVS Table VI-6-a: Average cost of university undergraduate tuition (by university)

[35] Times Higher Education (2016) World University Rankings: World Reputation Rankings 2016. https://www.timeshighereducation.com/world-university-rankings/2016/reputation-ranking#!/page/0/length/25/sort_by/rank_label/sort_order/asc/cols/rank_only (last accessed August 2016)

[36] Trendence. (2016). The 2015 Global University Employability Survey and Ranking. Last accessed July 8, 2016 from http://media.wix.com/ugd/663eee_f538e285aaa94cd6aa30be2eb4d28b4c.pdf; https://www.timeshighereducation.com/carousels/global-employability-university-ranking-2015-results

[37] https://www.timeshighereducation.com/features/employability-which-university-is-doing-the-best-by-its-students

[38] York and Ryerson MBA program’s ranked in top 100 programs in world by Economist: Ryerson University. (November 2015). Last accessed July 6, 2016 from http://www.ryerson.ca/ryersontoday/data/news/2015/10/20151021-mba-ranks-among-top-100-in-the-economist.html; The Economist. Full Time MBA Ranking. (November 2015). Last accessed July 9, 2016 from http://www.economist.com/whichmba/full-time-mba-ranking?year=2015&term_node_tid_depth=77632

[39] The Economist. (n.d.). Which MBA? Methodology. Last accessed September 2, 2016 from http://www.economist.com/whichmba/methodology

[40] Markham. (n.d.). Get ready for York U in Markham Centre. Last accessed April 20, 2016 from https://www.markham.ca/wps/portal/Markham/MunicipalGovernment/AboutMunicipalGovernment/MajorCityProjects/york-university-campus/

[41] York University. (n.d.) It’s a yes to York. Last accessed April 20, 2016 from http://yestoyork.ca/

[42] Markham. (n.d.). Get ready for York U in Markham Centre. Last accessed April 20, 2016 from https://www.markham.ca/wps/portal/Markham/MunicipalGovernment/AboutMunicipalGovernment/MajorCityProjects/york-university-campus/

[43] York University. (n.d.) It’s a yes to York. Last accessed April 20, 2016 from http://yestoyork.ca/

[44] York University. (n.d.) It’s a yes to York. Last accessed April 20, 2016 from http://yestoyork.ca/

[45] World Council on City Data: WCCD Open City Data Portal. (2015). Last accessed August 26, 2016, from http://open.dataforcities.org/. Visit this portal to find further data on this and other subjects for these and other cities.

[46] World Council on City Data: WCCD Open City Data Portal. (2015). Last accessed August 26, 2016, from http://open.dataforcities.org/. Visit this portal to find further data on this and other subjects for these and other cities.

[47] Strategic Foresight and Innovation. OCADU. Last accessed July 29, 2016 from http://www.ocadu.ca/academics/graduate-studies/strategic-foresight-and-innovation.htm#courses

[48] The City Institute at York University. Last accessed July 29, 2016 from http://www.yorku.ca/city/

[49] Laura Thompson. (April 26, 2016). YouTube space initiative for video creator expands to Canada. Retrieve April 27, 2016 from http://www.cbc.ca/news/arts/youtube-space-for-video-creators-launches-first-canadian-studio-1.3553839