Leadership, Civic Engagement, and Belonging

Why is this important?

Vibrant cities are those where residents are engaged and feel that they belong, where civic institutions reflect the diversity of the population, and where strong social connections unite people to one another (research consistently links a sense of belonging with good physical and mental health). Tracking such indicators helps us to see how well we are doing at building an inclusive city, and where some residents may be left on the margins.

 

What are the trends?

Youth aged 12-19 and Torontonians overall continue to feel a strong sense of belonging to their community, but only half of young adults feel the same. The number of people who make charitable donations in the Region has been slowly declining for a number of years, but the median donation has increased.

 

What’s new?

The City’s Planning Division has convened a citizen panel to ensure that major initiatives are “aligned with the values and priorities” of Torontonians. In 2015, Torontonians contributed to the highest voter turnout in a Federal election since 1993 (67.2% of eligible Toronto voters cast a ballot), and they also are now responding to an international refugee crisis by welcoming thousands of Syrian to our city’s communities. But systemic racism continues to create barriers for racialized communities in the city. Black children are over-represented in the child protection system and stay longer in care.

 

 

Are Torontonians satisfied in life, and do they feel connected?

Almost seven in 10 Torontonians and eight in 10 youth feel a strong sense of belonging to their local community—but only half of young adults feel the same:

  • The percentage of city youth (12–19 years old) who report a very strong or somewhat strong sense of community belonging on the Statistics Canada Canadian Community Health Survey rose to 80.5% in 2014 (after an 8% dip from 85.5% to 78.7% between 2012 and 2013).
  • 68.9% of Torontonians aged 12 and over reported feeling a very strong or somewhat strong sense of belonging, a big improvement from 55.9% in 2003 and higher than the national (66.4%), and provincial (68.2%) averages.
  • Only 56.6% of young adults age 20 to 34, on the other hand, feel a sense of belonging.
  • Research shows a high correlation of sense of community belonging with physical and mental health.[1]

 

A global survey of urban millennials shows that Toronto’s millennials do not seem satisfied with the city—the majority report that they will likely leave in the next decade:

  • Between August 2015 and January 2016, YouthfulCities conducted the Global Urban Millennials Survey of approximately 15,000 millennials (whom they define as being aged 15-34) from 34 cities around the world.[2]
  • Of Toronto’s millennials, 63% report that in the next 10 years they will likely leave their city[3] (compared to 84% of Montréal’s millennials[4] and 58% of millennials worldwide).[5]
  • YouthfulCities reports that when millennials were asked to rate the performance of their city on several attributes, Toronto scored poorly on affordability, employment, transit and environment, but performed well in terms of diversity, access to financial services, and music and film.[6]
  • Only a third (33%) of our millennials think Toronto is a youthful city, in contrast to 89% of millennials in London[7] and 41% of those in Montréal.[8]
    • The benefits of a youthful city, Toronto millennials believe, are a happier population (73% believe this), more jobs (53%), a better economy (41%), and greater attractiveness to employers (60%) and entrepreneurs (64%).
  • A dismal 5% of Toronto’s millennials report feeling that their local government listens to them[9] (versus 17% globally[10]). 69% say they want to participate in meetings about the city’s future[11] (versus 38% of millennials in Montréal[12] and 55% worldwide[13]).

 

How civically engaged are Torontonians?

The City’s Planning Division has convened a citizen panel to ensure that major planning initiatives are “aligned with the values and priorities” of Torontonians:

  • Over two years, 28 residents representative of our diverse city will work together on a Planning Review Panel meant to help the City guide growth and change.
    • Over 500 residents applied for a volunteer position on the panel after being among 12,000 randomly invited to participate. The members were selected by “civic lottery”—a “made in Toronto” process that ensured proportionate representation of genders, ages, tenants versus owners, location within the city, and minorities (including at least one Aboriginal panelist).
  • With a goal of “informed public input” on planning projects and decisions, panelists were introduced in fall 2015 to a wide range of Toronto’s trends and known issues and features, from its demographics to housing, the economy, transportation, and green space and the natural environment. [14]
  • In April 2015 the panel met at Metro Hall to consider the City’s new Complete Streets Guidelines and the “TOcore: Planning Downtown” project.
  • In May the panel considered the Parks, Forestry & Recreation Facilities Master Plan and the Growing Up: Planning for Children in New Vertical Communities study being undertaken by City Planning to meet the needs of households with children in multi-unit housing built in high-density communities.[15]
  • The panel adjourned for the summer and was scheduled to begin meeting again in September 2016. Panelists will meet an additional 12 times over their two-year tenure.[16]

 

Introducing the Toronto Planning Review Panel:

 

43% of Toronto’s youth report being civically engaged:

  • According to a global youth survey by The Economist’s Intelligence Unit, 43% of Toronto respondents (150 youth between 18 and 25) participated in programs or activities that helped their city, community, or country within the last two years.
  • Toronto ranked 20th of the 35 cities surveyed.[17]

 

Percentage of Respondents Participating in Civic Engagement Activities, Last Two Years:

respondents

Toronto has welcomed close to 4,000 Syrian refugees in response to a historic outpouring of concern, support and initiative by Canadians over the war in Syria and the international refugee crisis:

  • On February 29, 2016, the Government of Canada reached its commitment to bring to the country 25,000 of the nearly four million Syrians displaced by a civil war and regional instability.[18]
  • As of August 24, 2016, 29,970 Syrian refugees had arrived in Canada since November 2015. Of those,
    • 16,182 were government assisted refugees (GARs), referred to Canada by the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR);
    • 2,896 were blended visa office-referred refugees (BVORs), refugees identified by UNHCR, with six-month financial support from the Federal government and six-month private sponsorship; and
    • 10,892 privately sponsored refugees (PSRs), sponsored through the Private Sponsorship of Refugee Program, with Canadians committing to volunteer their time and donate the funds to settle the refugees and support them for one year.[19]
  • The number of Syrian refugees admitted to Toronto since August 24, 2016, included:
    • 1,879 GARs;
    • 322 BVORs; and
    • 1,643 PSRs, with a further 1504 in the system awaiting paperwork to be able to come to Canada.
  • While numbers are concentrated downtown, destination communities and service provider organizations across Toronto stepped up to respond to the international refugee crisis.[20]

Map of Destination Communities and Service Provider Organizations, Toronto [21]

settlement-map

Source: Government of Canada. Note: blue dots represent service provider organizations.

  • Toronto Public Health, in collaboration with the Toronto Newcomer Office, provided Syrian refugees with post-arrival support and health information (e.g., advice about pregnancy, smoking cessation, immunization, and dental care).[22]

 

Ideas-and-InnovationsLifeline Syria is a citizen led advocacy and resource group formed to recruit, train and support private sponsor groups as Toronto welcomes more than 1,000 Syrian refugees as permanent immigrants in the GTA. In its first year of operations, Lifeline Syria almost met its two-year goals:

  • they registered over 400 Private Sponsor Groups
  • they submitted cases for over 900 Syrian refugees (of which 100 arrived by July 2016).[23]

 

Ideas-and-InnovationsNewcomer Kitchen” is helping Syrian refugee women build community and economic opportunity:

  • When local chef Len Senater heard that many government-sponsored Syrian refugees were being housed in hotels for weeks, he offered up his kitchen at The Depanneur once a week so mothers could cook home-cooked, traditional meals for their families.[24]
  • The project has since expanded into a social enterprise. The women now prepare extra food and sell meals to the public. Every Thursday, 10 to 12 participants earn about $15 an hour.
  • Senater hopes the success of Newcomer Kitchen will provide a “playbook” for others to welcome migrant women into any kitchen in any city.[25]

 

Ideas-and-InnovationsCommunity Foundations of Canada (CFC) in partnership with Manulife and CN have created the Welcome Fund for Syrian Refugees (Welcome Fund), and now with additional support from GM it totals $5.55 million.[26] The Welcome Fund will provide support for Government-assisted Refugees (GARs) to address urgent settlement needs in communities across the country:

  • Toronto Foundation received $750,000 from the Welcome Fund to address the affordability gap in securing housing for GARs arriving in Toronto and surrounding municipalities. A new cross-sectoral partnership led by the Foundation has come together to test new approaches to address the overall housing affordability gap, which is particularly acute in Toronto.
  • Toronto Foundation with the City of Toronto, COSTI Immigrant Services and a consortium of landlord and property management groups are working to identify reduced-rent units to meet the immediate housing needs of government-assisted Syrian families.
  • Landlords are being asked to make in-kind contributions to reduce rental costs, and the Welcome Fund will match those donations 2:1.
  • Grant funds are being disbursed to the City of Toronto, who will provide funds to landlords that house eligible GARs, working closely with COSTI Immigrant Services and Polycultural Immigrant and Community Services who is leading the government’s efforts to settle GARs in the Region.

 

Is a tide of voter apathy turning in Toronto?

Although some previous Federal elections had seen dismal voter turnout rates, the most recent election saw the highest voter turnout since 1993, and Torontonians turned out in greater numbers:

  • Voter turnout in the 2011 federal election was a near-record low of 61.1%. Turnout from Toronto’s voters, at 60.4%, was even lower than the national average and the provincial average of 61.5%.[27]
  • In the 2015 election, however, 68.3% of eligible Canadian voters cast a ballot, an increase of 11.8% over 2011’s 61.1% turnout[28], and the highest turnout since 69.9% in 1993.[29] Among those were 67.2% of Toronto voters, an increase of 12.6% since 2004.[30]
  • The election saw historic youth voter turnout across the country. 57.1 per cent of young voters 18-24 turned out to vote, compared to just 38.8 per cent in 2011. This is the biggest increase in turnout among this age group since it began making demographic turnout estimates in 2004.[31]

 

Toronto’s municipal voter turnout has been slowly improving over the past several years, with the 2014 municipal election attracting a record turnout:

  • 54.7% of eligible voters (991,754 of 1,813,915) cast a ballot in the 2014 municipal election—a record since amalgamation.
  • This marks a big improvement (51.9%) over the approximately 36% who voted in the 2000 election. In 2003, voter turnout was 38.3%, in 2006 39.3%, and in 2010, it jumped to 50.55% of eligible voters.[32]

 

What are some barriers to civic engagement and belonging?

Workers in York Region are less likely to vote than those in the GTHA, especially if they are precariously employed:

  • Research of GTHA workers has found that rising precarious, or insecure, employment affects health and mental health. But it also affects civic engagement and belonging.
  • The Poverty and Employment Precarity in Southern Ontario (PEPSO) research group surveyed and interviewed workers aged 25-65 in 2014 and 2015 and has documented relationships between employment security and income and voting patterns (amongst other measures of civic engagement).[33]
  • Almost 90% of GTHA workers who are citizens, have more secure employment, and live in high-income households ($100,000 or more) report that they always vote. When employment is less secure and the household is low income (under $60,000), just over half say they always vote.
  • York Region workers across all levels of employment security and household income are less likely to vote than workers in the GTHA. The difference is especially pronounced when work in less secure and the household is middle- ($60,000-99,999) or low-income (under $60,000).

 

Percentage Reporting Always Votes by Employment Security and Household Income, York Region 2011/2014 and GTHA 2014 [34]

reporting-voting

  • The researchers note “no obvious explanation” for lower participation in York Region, as the age and immigration profile of its sample was similar to the GTHA’s.
    • Both Canadian- and foreign-born racialized workers are less likely to always vote than Canadian-born white workers (over 40% and 35% less likely, respectively).[35]

 

Figures released by the Children’s Aid Society of Toronto confirm that black children are over-represented in the child protection system, and they stay longer in care:

  • A 2015 Children’s Aid Society (CAS) study that breaks down its records (March 2008 to April 2009) by racial background reveals that the percentage of black-led families subject to protection referrals is disproportionately higher than the size of the black community in Toronto (in the 2011 NHS): 21% versus 8.5%.
  • Similarly, using data from 126 families with a child entering care in 2008-09, the percentage of stays in care that are greater than 18 months is higher for black-led families than for white- or Asian-led families.[36]
  • The study confirms numbers revealed in December 2014 by the Toronto Star, whose investigation of CAS data showed that while only 8.2% of Toronto’s population under the age of 18 is black, black children and youth comprise 41% of kids in the care of CAS.
    • By contrast, more than half of the city’s population under the age of 18 is white but only 37% of the children in care are white.[37]
  • Sources of protection referrals are similar for black-led versus other families, with police and school/education being the most common sources for all.[38]
  • Figures obtained by The Star also indicated that over-representation of black children in care is province-wide, and that First Nations children are also over-represented provincially.
    • Of children in care for at least one year, in 2014 23% were First Nations, although First Nations comprise only 2.5% of Ontario’s population under 18.[39]
    • Citing “systemic and persistent discrimination,” the chief commissioner of the Ontario Human Rights Commission has urged the collection and publication of raced-based data to help determine the extent of black and aboriginal children being disproportionately taken from their families.[40]

The City has committed to improving online registration for its recreation programs, a process that has proven frustrating and has disadvantaged low-income families:

  • The tradition of waking early to try to register online for City-run recreational programs may soon come to an end. At a March 2016 press conference, Mayor John Tory acknowledged that he had “heard over and over again how incredibly frustrating it is, how people literally arrange their entire schedule for days to be sitting by a computer, sometimes having multiple people in the same house on different computers or going elsewhere to use computers, to keep hitting refresh.”[41]
  • Residents can also register by phone and in person, but 80% of recreational programming registration is done online. Almost half (45%) of all online registrations processed occur between 7-8am on registration days. As many as 130,000 people register in that first hour.
    • 30% of programs are full after the first hour.[42]
  • Those who have access to faster internet and to computers have an advantage over low-income families, leaving the latter unable to register for programs that were originally created for them, according to Councillor Pam McConnell.[43]
  • Improvements have been made in recent years. Since 2009 2,000 online registration sessions have been added, and increased system capacity has seen the time needed to process 20,000 registrations drop from three hours to 30 minutes in 2014. And, as of March 2016 the system can handle up to 5,600 system users at a time, a 55% increase from 2013.[44]
  • Nonetheless, the technology underlying the current registration system is outdated, and Tory discussed plans to replace it completely to reduce client frustration and improve efficiency. Features he hoped to implement include:
    • automatic direction to the next available programming timeslot if the first is full;
    • ability to search for programming by geographic location;
    • automated wait lists (currently, staff manually handle wait lists);
    • mobile friendliness on all platforms; and
    • an improved interface, including maps and the Fun Guide. [45]

 

Each year, the City offers about one million hours of recreational programming, with over 600,000 registrations in 80,000 programs and courses offered in 135 community recreation centres, 40 indoor arenas, 56 outdoor pools, and 65 indoor pools. Programs range from soccer, swimming and summer camps to skating lessons, and programs target community members from newcomers to seniors.[46]

  • In 2015, more than 158,000 unique clients (individuals registering for multiple programs are counted only once), including about 15,000 unique youth clients, registered for programs; and
  • 35,892 unique clients used the Welcome Policy, which offers financial assistance to low-income families to improve access to recreational programs and facilities. Although this represents a 12.3% decrease from 40,933 in 2014, Parks, Forestry and Recreation says the decline may be due to the designation in Fall 2014 of 15 more community centres where programs are free.[47]

 

In 2013, Toronto’s municipal spending on recreation and culture totaled $905,987,000, an expenditure of $798 per household and a 2.6% increase per household over 2012.

  • Comparatively, Regina spent $776 per household ($65,937,000 total), and Calgary $655 ($303,618,000).[48]

 

How strong is Toronto’s charitable sector?

The percentage of Torontonians claiming a charitable donation on their income tax return decreased again in 2014, but the median donation increased again:

  • 21.2% of Toronto Region taxfilers declared a donation, a decrease of 1.9% from 2013 (when 21.6% donated) and 17.5% from 1997 (when 25.7% donated). The Region’s proportion was lower than both the national (21.4 %) and provincial (22.4%) averages.[49]
    • The percentage of charitable givers in the Region has remained relatively stable since 2009, although between 2010 and 2014 the rate declined marginally year over year.[50]
  • While donors were fewer, the median charitable donation increased by 2.7%, from $370 to $380, $100 more than the national average and $30 more than the provincial average. The Region’s median charitable donation has increased by 90.0% since 1997, when it was $200.[51]

 

The percentage of Region residents who volunteer has declined:

  • In 2013, the volunteer rate in the Region was 43.7%, down from 47.6% in 2007.
  • The 2013 volunteer rate was slightly higher than the national average of 43.6%.[52]

 

 


 

To learn more about innovative community-based organizations and programs working to address issues relating to health and wellness, check out ckc.torontofoundation.ca.

 

 


 

[1] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 105-0501. Geography limited to “City of Toronto Health Unit, Ontario [3595-G],” Characteristics limited to “Percent,” and Age Group limited to “12 to 19 years.” http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1050501&paSer=&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csid=.

[2] Youthful Ciites (2016). Global Urban Millennial Survey 2016. Last accessed September 2, 2016 from http://media.wix.com/ugd/3a3a66_0ef21ccdc3384534a39e31720a761dce.pdf (last accessed August 2016)

[3] Robert Bound. What’s Wrong Toronto? Linked In. Last accessed September 2, 2016 from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/whats-wrong-toronto-robert-barnard.

[4] Youthful Cities. Infographic. Last accessed September 2, 2016 from https://www.facebook.com/youthfulcities/photos/pb.194068434053557.-2207520000.1467634482./868850609908666/?type=3&theater

[5] Youthful Ciites (2016). Global Urban Millennial Survey 2016. Last accessed September 2, 2016 from http://media.wix.com/ugd/3a3a66_0ef21ccdc3384534a39e31720a761dce.pdf (last accessed August 2016)

[6] Robert Bound. What’s Wrong Toronto? Linked In. Last accessed September 2, 2016 from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/whats-wrong-toronto-robert-barnard.

[7] Robert Bound. What’s Wrong Toronto? Linked In. Last accessed September 2, 2016 from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/whats-wrong-toronto-robert-barnard.

[8] Youthful Cities. Infographic. Last accessed September 2, 2016 from https://www.facebook.com/youthfulcities/photos/pb.194068434053557.-2207520000.1467634482./868850609908666/?type=3&theater

[9] Robert Bound. What’s Wrong Toronto? Linked In. Last accessed September 2, 2016 from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/whats-wrong-toronto-robert-barnard.

[10] Last accessed September 2, 2016 from http://media.wix.com/ugd/3a3a66_0ef21ccdc3384534a39e31720a761dce.pdf

[11] Robert Bound. What’s Wrong Toronto? Linked In. Last accessed September 2, 2016 from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/whats-wrong-toronto-robert-barnard.

[12] Youthful Cities. Infographic. Last accessed September 2, 2016 from https://www.facebook.com/youthfulcities/photos/pb.194068434053557.-2207520000.1467634482./868850609908666/?type=3&theater.

[13] Last accessed September 2, 2016 from http://media.wix.com/ugd/3a3a66_0ef21ccdc3384534a39e31720a761dce.pdf

[14] Last accessed September 2, 2016 from http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/City%20Planning/Planning%20Review%20Panel/Downloads/Final%20TPRP%20Meeting%20Summary-%20%20April%202.pdf

[15] City of Toronto (2016) Toronto Planning Review Panel. http://www1.toronto.ca/wps/portal/contentonly?vgnextoid=865832ed6c89f410VgnVCM10000071d60f89RCRD (last accessed August 2016)

[16] Last accessed September 2, 2016 from http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/City%20Planning/Planning%20Review%20Panel/Downloads/Final%20TPRP%20Meeting%20Summary-%20%20April%202.pdf

[17] The Economist: Intelligence Unit. (2015). Accelerating Pathways: Global Youth Survey 2015. Citi Foundation. Last accessed February 22, 2016 from http://www.citi.com/citi/foundation/programs/pathways-to-progress/accelerating-pathways/downloads/Citi-Foundation-Accelerating-Pathways-Global-Youth-Survey-2015.pdf

[18] Government of Canada (2016). Global Affairs Canada. Backgrounder – Canada’s response to the Syria crisis. Last accessed September 2, 2016 from http://international.gc.ca/media/aff/news-communiques/2016/05/16a-bg.aspx?lang=eng&pedisable=true (last accessed augst 2016)

[19] Government of Canada. (April 10, 2016). #WelcomeRefugees: Milestones and key figures. Last accessed April 19, 2016 from http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/refugees/welcome/milestones.asp

[20] Government of Canada. (Aug 24, 2016). Map of destination communities and service provider organizations. Last accessed Aug 26, 2016 from http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/refugees/welcome/map.asp.

[21] Government of Canada. (Aug 24, 2016). Map of destination communities and service provider organizations. Last accessed Aug 26, 2016 from http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/refugees/welcome/map.asp.

[22] Toronto Public Health (2016). 2015 Annual Report: A Healthy City for All. Last accessed June 1, 2016 from www.toronto.ca/legdocs/mmis/2016/hl/bgrd/backgroundfile-92057.pdf

[23] Lifeline Syria. Updates on Lifeline Syria Processes (July 4, 2016). Last accessed July 29, 2016 from http://lifelinesyria.ca/lifeline-syria-seeking-new-sponsors/

[24] Mary Wiens. (May 12, 2016). Syrian refugees cooking up a storm in Toronto restaurants. CBC News. Last accessed August 15, 2016, from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/newcomer-kitchen-syrian-refugees-1.3578356

[25] Mahnoor Yawar. (Jun. 24, 2016). Newcomer Kitchen project gives Syrian refugees a taste of home in Toronto. The Globe and Mail. Last accessed August 15, 2016 from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/toronto/torontos-newcomer-kitchen-gives-refugees-a-taste-of-home/article30612035/

[26] Sara Lyons. (June 20, 2016). Rolling Out the Welcome Fund for Syrian Refugees in Canadian Communities. Community Foundations of Canada. Last accessed September 2, 2016 from http://communityfoundations.ca/rolling-out-the-welcome-fund-for-syrian-refugees-in-canadian-communities/

[27] Special request from Community Foundations of Canada, Toronto Foundation’s national research partner. (2016). NVS Table X-3: Percentage Voter Turnout for Federal Elections

[28] Special request from Community Foundations of Canada, Toronto Foundation’s national research partner. (2016). NVS Table X-3: Voter turnout

[29] Edwards, Peter. (Oct 20, 2015). Highest voter turnout since 1993. Last accessed April 20, 2016 from http://www.thestar.com/news/federal-election/2015/10/20/high-voter-highest-since-1993.html

[30] Special request from Community Foundations of Canada, Toronto Foundation’s national research partner. (2016). NVS Table X-3: Voter turnout

[31] Elections Canada. (2016). Voter Turnout by Age Group, 2011 and 2016. Last accessed August 24, 2016 from http://www.elections.ca/content.aspx?section=res&dir=rec/eval/pes2015/vtsa&document=table1&lang=e.

[32] City of Toronto. Municipal Election—Voter Turnout Statistics. Last accessed September 9, 2015 from http://www.toronto.ca/311/knowledgebase/85/101000040385.html.

[33] Wayne Lewchuck, et. al. PEPSO, McMaster University, and United Way. (May 2015). The Precarity Penalty: The Impact of Employment Precarity on Individuals, Households and Communities―And What to Do About It. http://www.unitedwaytoronto.com/research-and-reports.

[34] Poverty and Employment Precarity in Southern Ontario, McMaster University, and United Way Toronto and York Region (March 2016). The Precarity Penalty: York Region. Last accessed April 19, 2016 from http://www.unitedwaytyr.com/file/FINAL-Precarity-Penalty-Summary-York-Region-2016Mar21.pdf

[35] Poverty and Employment Precarity in Southern Ontario, McMaster University, and United Way Toronto and York Region (March 2016). The Precarity Penalty: York Region. Last accessed April 19, 2016 from http://www.unitedwaytyr.com/file/FINAL-Precarity-Penalty-Summary-York-Region-2016Mar21.pdf

[36] Children’s Aid Society of Toronto. (July 2015). Addressing Disproportionality, Disparity, and Discrimination in Child Welfare. Last accessed February 22, 2016 from http://www.torontocas.ca/app/Uploads/documents/baccc-final-website-posting.pdf

[37] Toronto Star. (2014). Why are so many black children in foster and group homes? Last accessed September 18, 2015 from http://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2014/12/11/why_are_so_many_black_children_in_foster_and_group_homes.html.

[38] Children’s Aid Society of Toronto. (July 2015). Addressing Disproportionality, Disparity, and Discrimination in Child Welfare. Last accessed February 22, 2016 from http://www.torontocas.ca/app/Uploads/documents/baccc-final-website-posting.pdf

[39] Toronto Star. (2014). Why are so many black children in foster and group homes? Last accessed September 18, 2015 from http://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2014/12/11/why_are_so_many_black_children_in_foster_and_group_homes.html.

[40] Contenta, Sandro; Monsebraaten, Laurie; and Rankin, Jim. (January 11, 2016). Ontario human rights chief calls for race-based stats for kids in care. Toronto Star. Last accessed February 8, 2016 from Ontario human rights chief calls for race-based stats for kids in care | Toronto Star

[41] Rider, David. (March 8, 2016). Toronto to replace ‘frustrating’ sign-up system for recreation programs. Toronto Star. Last accessed March 14, 2016 from http://www.thestar.com/news/city_hall/2016/03/08/toronto-to-replace-registration-system-for-recreation-programs.html

[42] Tory, John. (March 8, 2016). Mayor Tory’s remarks regarding Parks and Recreation Registration Process. Office of the Mayor. Last accessed from http://www1.toronto.ca/wps/portal/contentonly?vgnextoid=8612b61a1f253510VgnVCM10000071d60f89RCRD&vgnextchannel=c08332d0b6d1e310VgnVCM10000071d60f89RCRD

[43] David Rider. (March 8, 2016). Toronto to replace ‘frustrating’ sign-up system for recreation programs. Toronto Star. Last accessed March 14, 2016 from http://www.thestar.com/news/city_hall/2016/03/08/toronto-to-replace-registration-system-for-recreation-programs.html

[44] John Tory. (March 8, 2016). Mayor Tory’s remarks regarding Parks and Recreation Registration Process. Office of the Mayor. Last accessed from http://www1.toronto.ca/wps/portal/contentonly?vgnextoid=8612b61a1f253510VgnVCM10000071d60f89RCRD&vgnextchannel=c08332d0b6d1e310VgnVCM10000071d60f89RCRD

[45] John Tory. (March 8, 2016). Mayor Tory’s remarks regarding Parks and Recreation Registration Process. Office of the Mayor. Last accessed from http://www1.toronto.ca/wps/portal/contentonly?vgnextoid=8612b61a1f253510VgnVCM10000071d60f89RCRD&vgnextchannel=c08332d0b6d1e310VgnVCM10000071d60f89RCRD

[46] John Tory. (March 8, 2016). Mayor Tory’s remarks regarding Parks and Recreation Registration Process. Office of the Mayor. Last accessed from http://www1.toronto.ca/wps/portal/contentonly?vgnextoid=8612b61a1f253510VgnVCM10000071d60f89RCRD&vgnextchannel=c08332d0b6d1e310VgnVCM10000071d60f89RCRD

[47] City of Toronto (May 2016) Parks, Forestry and Recreation Division: Policy and Strategic Planning – Operational Effectiveness [Special request]

[48] Special request from Community Foundations of Canada, Toronto Foundation’s national research partner. (2016). NVS Table VII-3: Municipal Spending on Recreation and Culture

[49] Special request from Community Foundations of Canada, Toronto Foundation’s national research partner. (2016). NVS Table X-1: Percent of tax filers making charitable donations

[50] Special request from Community Foundations of Canada, Toronto Foundation’s national research partner. (2016). NVS Table X-I: Charitable Donors as a Proportion of Tax Filers for Vital Signs Communities, 1997-2013, per cent.

[51] Special request from Community Foundations of Canada, Toronto Foundation’s national research partner. (2016). NVS Table X-4: Median charitable donations

[52] Special request from Community Foundations of Canada, Toronto Foundation’s national research partner. (2016). NVS Table X-2: Volunteer rate