Gap Between Rich and Poor

Why is this important?

Rising income inequality (rising twice as fast in Toronto than in the rest of the country)[1] affects everyone. As median incomes and income mobility stagnate, poor health outcomes among those with low incomes lead to lost productivity and higher health care costs, and income polarization creates a widening achievement gap in city schools. The widening gap between rich and poor has an impact on the health of the economy.

 

What are the trends?

The median family income of low-income families ($15,340 before taxes in 2014[2]) doesn’t come close to supporting a household. The rising cost of nutritious food is out of reach of these households—2015 saw another increase in the monthly cost of a nutritious food basket for a family of four. Hunger continues its shift from the downtown to the inner suburbs, where visits to food banks have increased nearly 48% since 2008. With one in four children living in poverty, Toronto is the child poverty capital of Canada.

 

What’s new?

A project mapping child poverty across Canada by Federal riding shows that five of the 15 ridings with the highest child poverty rates are in Toronto. Our rate of Indigenous child poverty is lower than other cities, but largely due to the makeup of our Indigenous population.

 

How big is the gap in Toronto between the richest and the rest?

Toronto’s grade on equality of income distribution from the Board of Trade remained unchanged in 2014, after a year when it had improved:

With a score again of 0.40 on the Gini coefficient, the Toronto Region retained its 11th place ranking out of 24 global metropolitan centres on the Toronto Region Board of Trade’s 2015 Scorecard on Prosperity, unchanged from Scorecard 2014 (when it had moved up from 14th place).

  • The Gini coefficient uses a spectrum to measure income distribution (it does not consider real levels of poverty or prosperity in society). 0 represents perfect equality, and 1 represents perfect inequality (or one person has all the income, and the rest of the population has nothing).
  • globalThe ranking keeps Toronto ahead of Calgary and Vancouver, and behind Halifax.
    • Montréal (0.39), Toronto, and Vancouver (0.42) all received “B” grades, and Calgary (0.43) a “C,” while Halifax was the only city outside Europe to earn an “A.”
  • The top five cities, and six of the top seven, are European, while US cities continue to dominate the other end of the rankings, occupying seven of the bottom eight places this year.[3]

 

Toronto Region’s Top 1% versus other Canadian Cities and Canada, 2012 [4]

Area Number in top 1% Income share Median income % from wages/salaries
Toronto Region 67,850 17.5% $326,800 65.4%
Vancouver 20,670 13.0% $312,500 57.4%
Calgary 32,230 25.5% $319,700 75.1%
Regina 1,815 8.3% $312,800 59.3%
Montréal 27,310 9.6% $312,100 54.3%
Halifax 2,400 7.0% $300,100 58.1%
Canada 264,030 10.3% $306,400 62.6%

 

  • Meanwhile, the Region’s top 10% shared 43.5% of total declared income in 2013. Their average incomes grew by 2.1% between 2012 and 2013.[5]

Ideas-and-InnovationsResidents in Toronto’s Parkdale neighbourhood are measuring and monitoring quality of life in the community themselves with an eye to developing a long-term neighbourhood plan:

  • snapshotThe Parkdale People’s Economy project attempts to rethink “the economy” and take a different and unique approach to local economic development that goes beyond traditional economic indicators like GDP and is instead based on the principles of shared ownership, democratic management, and ethics of care.
  • The project utilizes a participatory planning process and resident engagement for visioning and shaping the future of Parkdale that the community wants to create together.

 

Are we making any progress in reducing poverty in Toronto?

Social assistance caseloads in the city of Toronto continue to drop, but they have still not reached pre-recession levels:

  • The average monthly social assistance caseload for January to October 2014 was 92,771. As of October 2014 the social assistance caseload totalled 90,202 cases, 5.6% less than a year earlier, and well below budgeted levels.
  • Although the trend is positive, the total caseload remains much higher than before the recession. Cases numbered 76,867 in December 2008.[6]
  • Seniors in the Toronto Region continue to face growing levels of poverty:
    • The percentage of the Region’s seniors living in poverty increased from 10.5% in 2011 to 12.1%  in 2014.[7]

 

Family incomes in the Region increased by about a third between 2000 and 2013:

  • Between 2000 and 2013, average census family incomes increased 32.4%, from $78,210 to $103,531 (in current dollars). Average incomes in the Region were 1.5% higher (representing $1,514 more) in 2013 than in 2012, and higher than the Canadian ($97,833) and provincial ($99,024) averages.[8]
  • Median incomes increased 31.7% between 2000 and 2013, from $55,300 to $72,830. The 2013 median was 2.3% (or $1,620) more than in 2012, but lower than both the Canadian ($76,550) and provincial ($76,510) medians.[9]

 

Toronto continues to be the child poverty capital of Canada—one in four children lives in poverty:

  • A 2015 update from the Alliance for a Poverty-Free Toronto, Children’s Aid Society of Toronto, Colour of Poverty–Colour of Change, Family Service Toronto, and Social Planning Toronto shows that Toronto’s child and family poverty rate dropped in 2013 back to 2007 levels.
    • Poverty is defined here as living below the After Tax Low-Income Measure (LIM-AT) in 2013.
    • Children 0-17 are the most at risk of poverty. Toronto’s child poverty rate has consistently been between 27% and 32% between 2013 and 2007.
  • The news is little cause for celebration. At 28.6%, Toronto’s 2013 child poverty rate was still the highest among large Canadian cities of 500,000 or more residents. Vast gaps in child poverty exist between neighbourhoods in this “divided city.”[10]

Percentage of Children (0-17) Living Under the LIM-AT by Neighbourhood, Toronto, 2013 [11]

October 13, 2015

  • A previous report from this working group called Toronto’s child and family poverty a “hidden epidemic.” The number of children living in low-income families increased by over 10,000 between 2010 and 2012 alone, reaching 145,890 or 29% of Toronto’s children, the highest rate in the GTHA. But poverty varied significantly by where in the city children lived, and by their race and ethnicity.[12]

 

A project mapping child poverty by Federal riding shows that, of the 15 ridings across Canada with the highest child poverty rates, five are here in Toronto [13]

  • Campaign 2000 (a non-partisan, cross-Canada coalition of 120+ organizations committed to ending child and family poverty) mapped child poverty in the Federal ridings across the country using Statistics Canada’s 2013 taxfiler data for families with children 17 and under and incomes below the LIM-AT.
    • Maps were originally created using the 2013 federal riding boundaries, but the new 2015 boundaries have now been superimposed onto them.[14]
  • Five Toronto ridings (and seven in Ontario) are amongst the 15 in Canada with the highest levels of child poverty, and 30 GTA ridings have child poverty rates about the national average of 19%.[15]
    • Eight Toronto ridings have child poverty rates around 30%, and some have even higher rates. The Toronto Centre riding has a child poverty rate of 37.8%, indicating that child poverty exists even in neighbourhoods of some wealth.[16]
    • Poverty rates between 35 to 40% are concentrated in Toronto’s downtown, northwest, and southeast ridings.[17]

Low-Income Families by Federal Riding, GTA, 2013 [18]

child-poverty

Note: Map is based on the new 2015 ridings.

  • 147 ridings across the country have child poverty rates above the national average. The Churchill, Manitoba, riding has the worst: almost two-thirds of its children (65%) live in poverty.
  • Data from the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) show that ridings with high poverty rates tend to have more visible minorities and immigrants (the authors caution interpretation, however, as NHS participation was voluntary). In ridings with the highest poverty rates,
    • 33% of residents are immigrants (versus only 9.1% in ridings in the lowest poverty range);
    • 36.7% are visible minorities (versus 9.2% in the lowest range); and
    • 9.2% are people of Aboriginal identity (versus 1.2% in the lowest range)—40% of Canada’s Indigenous children live in poverty.

  • NHS data also show that people in ridings with higher child poverty experience lower rates of labour force participation and markedly higher unemployment.

    • In 2011, the labour force participation rate for people age 15 and over in ridings in the highest poverty range was 62.1%, and the unemployment rate was 10.3% (versus 68.6% and 5.7% in the lowest poverty range).[19]

  • A quarter century after a 1989, all-party resolution to end child poverty, Campaign 2000 is making recommendations including:

    •  an improved child benefit for low-income families to a minimum of $5,600 per child, funded through taxation;

    • a job program to handle the increase in precarious work, involuntary part-time work, and working poverty;

    • a national housing strategy to reflect the needs of First Nations and local communities; and

    • plans to reduce poverty in Indigenous populations.[20]

 

Toronto’s rate of Indigenous child poverty is lower than other cities:

  • A 2016 Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (CCPA) study examines Indigenous child poverty in Canada. The study used the LIM-AT (low income measure – after tax) and is the first to apply this measure to reserves and territories. CCPA defines those living below the LIM-AT as “living in poverty,” whereas Statistics Canada defines them as “low income.”
  • globalAccording to data from the 2011 NHS, Canada had the eighth highest rate of child poverty of 34 OECD countries with comparable data. Canada’s child poverty rate was 18%, higher than the OECD average of 14%.

 

International Child Poverty Rates, 2010/2011 [21]

intl-child-poverty

  • A breakdown of child poverty rates by identity shows that non-racialized, non-immigrant children had the lowest poverty rates at 13%, while Indigenous children accounted for most child poverty in Canada. While 17% of non-Indigenous children lived in poverty, 38% of Indigenous children did. The highest poverty rates were seen among children who were:
    • Status First Nations (51% overall, 60% on reserve, and 41% off reserve);
    • immigrants (32%);
    • non-status First Nations (29%);
    • Inuit (25%);
    • Metis (23%); and
    • racialized (22%).

 

Breakdown of Canada’s Child Poverty Rates by Identity [22]

indigenour-child-poverty

  • Toronto had by far the lowest poverty rate for Indigenous children (19%) among Canadian cities and was the only city with almost equal poverty rates among Indigenous and non-Indigenous children (19% and 18% respectively).
    • The authors note, that Toronto’s non-Indigenous child poverty rate was still the second highest in Canada (next to Vancouver’s) and its Indigenous population largely comprises non-status First Nations and Metis, both of whom tend to have lower rates of child poverty.[23]

 

Canada’s Child Poverty Rates by City, 2011 [24]

 rates-by-city

  • According to Statistics Canada, Toronto’s Indigenous population is approximately 20,000 (per the 2011 Census). But a recent study by St. Michael’s Hospital estimates the population may be two or three times larger—from 34,000 to 69,000.[25]

 

globalToronto’s poverty levels are high, and only surpassed by London’s, when compared to a cohort of comparable global cities:

  • Toronto’s poverty rate is 22.6% of the population (as reported to the World Council on City Data or WCCD in 2015).
  • That rate is on par with Boston’s (22.6%) and Los Angeles’ (22%), more than double Melbourne’s (11.0%), and close to double the rate of Vaughan (11.7%) and Amsterdam (12%).
  • London’s poverty rate fares worse than Toronto’s at 25.8% of the population.[26]

Percentage of Population Living in Poverty as Reported to WCCD in 2015 [27]

living-in-poverty

What does food insecurity look like in Toronto?

Food insecurity affects one in 10 households in the Toronto Region, creating daily hardship and the lifelong risk of diminished physical and mental health:

  • Using 2013 and 2014 data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, a 2016 report from University of Toronto researchers on household food insecurity in Canada shows that food insecurity is a growing problem in most parts of the country.
  • In 2014, 12% of the Canadian population was identified as food insecure—3.2 million people, including nearly 1 million (one in six) children.
  • Not surprisingly, food insecurity is strongly linked to household income levels. 61% of households whose primary income source was assistance were food insecure, as were 35.6% of those relying on Employment Insurance or Worker’s Compensation. But 62.2% of households reliant on wages or salaries from employment were also food insecure.
  • Other groups that experienced food insecurity in 2014 were:
    • 29.2% of households living below the LIM;
    • 29.4% of Black households;
    • 25.7% of Aboriginal households; and
    • 24.5% of renter households.
  • One in five food insecure households in Canada are severely food insecure. Severe food insecurity means:
    • that the food bought for the household runs out and there is no money to buy more;
    • feeling hungry, cutting the size of meals, and/or losing weight, because there isn’t enough food;
    • depending on a narrow range of low-cost food items to feed children; and
    • not feeding children enough.
  • One in 10 households in the Toronto Region is food insecure, and this trend has remained constant for several years: 12.50% of households were food insecure in 2007-2008, 11.96% in 2011-2012, and 12.6% in 2013-2014.[28]

 

Prevalence of Household Food Insecurity by CMA, 2007-08, 2011-12, and 2013-14 [29]

food-insecurity

The monthly cost of a Nutritious Food Basket in 2015 for a family of four in Toronto reached $847.16, a 33.7% increase since 2009 [30]

  • Food insecurity puts families and individuals at higher risk for many poor health outcomes including reported poorer physical and mental health and a range of chronic diseases.
  • Boards of Health in Ontario are required to monitor food affordability annually, and calculate the average cost to feed a nutritious diet to households of varying ages and sizes. The Nutritious Food Basket reflects the lowest prices for 67 basic food items. Processed, prepared, and snack foods are excluded, as are household items such as laundry detergent and soap. The actual grocery bill for most households would likely be higher than the estimate, due to costs not reflected in the Nutritious Food Basket:
    • the cost of transporting, storing, and cooking food;
    • the cost of convenience foods to households that lack the time or skills to plan and prepare meals from scratch; and
    • the added expense for single-person households (it is cheaper to buy food in larger quantities).[31]
    • The cost of the Nutritious Food Basket has increased steadily in recent years: it was $633.78 in 2009, $715.28 in 2010, $748.40 in 2011, $762.04 in 2012, $792.82 in 2013, and $835.91 in 2014.[32]
    • Although the cost of the 2015 Nutritious Food Basket was only 1.3% higher than in 2014 (compared to a 5.4% increase from 2013 to 2014), low-income families are being pushed even further into the red because a higher and higher proportion of income is swallowed up by rent. The table below shows the situations facing Toronto households forced to choose between shelter and healthy food, and funding all of their other daily needs.[33]

Monthly Cost of Nutritious Food Basket Scenarios, City of Toronto, May 2015 [34]

 (Monthly) Family of Four, Ontario Works Family of Four, Minimum Wage Earner

(Full-time/Full-year)

Single Parent Household

with 2 Children, Ontario Works

One Person Household, Ontario Works One Person Household,

ODSP

Income $2,196.00 2,882.00 1988.00 740.00 1,198.00
Average rent

(may or may not include hydro)

(3 Bdr.) $1,484.00 (3 Bdr.)

1,484.00

(2 Bdr.)

1,264.00

(Bachelor)

899.00

(1 Bdr.)

1,071.00

Nutritious food $847.16 847.16 639.76 285.52 285.52
Total food and rent $2,331.16 2,331.16 1,903.76 1,184.52 1,356.52
Funds remaining ($134.16) 550.84 84.24 (442.52) (163.52)
% income required

for rent

68%

(62% in 2014)

51%

(49%)

64%

(59%)

121%

(113%)

90%

(88%)

  • Adding in the cost per month of one transit pass paints an even harsher picture for low-income Torontonians:

 

Nutritious Food Basket Scenarios and Metropass Affordability, May 2015 [35]

 (Monthly) Family of Four, Ontario Works Family of Four, Minimum Wage Earner

(Full-time/Full-year)

Single Parent Household

with 2 Children, Ontario Works

One Person Household, Ontario Works One Person Household,

ODSP

Total food and rent $2,331.16 2,331.16 1,903.76 1,184.52 1,356.52
Cost of TTC Metropass[36] $141.50 141.50 141.50 141.50 141.50
Funds remaining ($276.66) 409.34 (57.26) (586.02) (305.02)

 

 

Average incomes of food bank users are falling, and hunger in Toronto continues its shift from downtown to the inner suburbs:

  • The Daily Bread Food Bank’s 2016 Who’s Hungry  shows 905,970 visits to Toronto food banks between April 2015 and March 2016 (up 2.5% from 883,900 between April 2013 and March 2014).[37]
  • There were likely many more in need who stayed away due to stigma and other factors. A 2009 study estimated that less than a quarter of food insecure households in Toronto make use of a food bank.[38]
  • Of those who accessed food bank services:
    • 39% of adult food bank users go hungry once a week, and 44% have not eaten for an entire day due to lack of money.
    • 17% of child food bank users go hungry at least once a week.

Torontonians use food banks because they don’t have an income that allows them to pay for rent and have enough left over for groceries. Some are receiving social assistance until they can find work and others are working but still not earning enough or getting enough hours to make ends meet.

  • The average monthly income of food bank users is $750[39], down from $763 for the same period in 2014-2015[40], and they spend 71% of their income on rent and utilities (65% pay market rent).
  • For 65% of users, their primary source of income is Ontario Works or the Ontario Disability Support Program.

Visits to food banks in Toronto’s inner suburbs have increased nearly 48% since the 2008 recession, as growing costs in the core have pushed low-income individuals and families to Scarborough, North York, and Etobicoke, where housing is more affordable.[41]

Toronto and other Canadian cities saw an increase in food bank in early 2016 use as Syrian refugee families and other newcomers arrived in Canadian communities:

  • While some Toronto food banks started seeing Syrian newcomers in December 2015 and January 2016, several food banks reported a 20% increase (11,000 more visits) in visits in February and March of 2016.[42] Although Daily Bread does not record the immigration status of food bank users, much of the increased demand early this year was attributed anecdotally by those working in food banks across the city to visits by Syrian refugees struggling to pay their bills as they moved into private rental units.[43]
  • The last time such a surge in usage was seen was in August-September 2010, when Toronto was recovering from the 2008 recession.

The Community Share Food Bank near Don Mills Road and Lawrence Avenue East reported experiencing a 30% increase in demand during that same period.[44]

The City of Toronto Strong Neighbourhoods Strategy 2020 (TSNS 2020) supports communities across Toronto to strengthen the social, economic and physical conditions and deliver local impact for city-wide change:

  • The goal is to have programs and investments tailored to the needs of each community.
  • Tactics include partnering with residents, businesses and agencies to invest in people, services, programs and facilities in specific neighbourhoods.
  • The TSNS 2020 includes an investment of $12 million in Neighbourhood Improvement Areas’ infrastructure over the next four years, leading up to the year 2020.[45]

 

The TO Prosperity, Toronto Poverty Reduction Strategy was unanimously approved by City Council on November 3, 2015. Since then, the City has begun a number of new initiatives:

  • On May 4, 2016, the City unanimously approved a Social Procurement Program, which will use of the city’s purchasing to create positive social, economic and workforce development outcomes.
  • The City has been working on a Transit Fare Equity strategy to create a fare geared-to-income. Calgary recently announced their geared-to-income fare: those making $12,000 a year or less can get a monthly pass for $5.15.
  • The City of Toronto is building a Lived Experience Advisory group. The City is inviting residents into the planning and decision making process. The online survey and conversation guide can be found here.[46]
  • City of Toronto will increase access to dental care for low-income adults and seniors through Poverty Reduction Strategy. Ontario Works clients seeking emergency dental services will be able to access 18 additional Toronto Public Health dental clinics, an increase from the five provincially funded Toronto Public Health clinics offering this service in 2015.[47]

 


 

To learn more about innovative community-based organizations and programs working to address issues relating to health and wellness, check out ckc.torontofoundation.ca.

 

 


 

[1] Laura McDonough, Mihaela Dinca-Panaitescu, Stephanie Procyk, Charlene Cook, Julia Drydyk, Michelynn Laflèche, & James McKee. United Way Toronto. (February 2015). The Opportunity Equation: Building Opportunity in the Face of Growing Income Inequality. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from http://www.unitedwaytyr.com/document.doc?id=285.

[2] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 111-0015. Geography limited to “Toronto, Ontario,” Family type characteristics limited to “Median total family income (dollars).”

[3] Toronto Region Board of Trade. (2015). Toronto as a Global City: Scorecard on Prosperity—2015. Last accessed August 31, 2016 from https://www.bot.com/Portals/0/unsecure/Advocacy/Scorecard_2015.pdf.

[4] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 204-0001. Geography limited to “Canada; Halifax, Nova Scotia; Montréal, Quebec; Toronto, Ontario; Regina, Saskatchewan; Calgary, Alberta; Vancouver, British Colombia,” income concepts limited to “Total Income,” income groups limited to “Top 1 percent income group; Top 10 percent income group,” statistics limited to “Number of tax filers (persons); Median income (current dollars); Average income (current dollars); Share of income; Percentage of income from wages and salaries.” http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=2040001&paSer=&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csid=.

[5] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. CANSIM Table 204-0001. Geography limited to “Toronto, Ontario,” income concepts limited to “Total Income,” income groups limited to “Top 10 percent income group,” statistics limited to “Average income (current dollars).” http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=2040001&paSer=&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csid=.

[6] City of Toronto. (2014). Quarter 4 2014 Results, Toronto’s Management Information Dashboard. Last accessed August 2016 from http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/City%20Managers%20Office/Toronto%20Progress%20Portal/Files/pdf/Management%20Information%20Dashboard%20Reports/Management%20Information%20Dashboard-Q4%202014.pdf.

[7] Government of Canada, Statistics Canada.  Income Statistics Division.  Family characteristics, Low Income Measures (LIM), by family type and family type composition, annual.  CANSIM Table 111-0015. Based on Annual Estimates for Census families and Individuals (T1 Family File). Last accessed September 19, 2016 from:  http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&id=1110015.

[8] Special request from Community Foundations of Canada, Toronto Foundation’s national research partner. (2016). NVS Table XI-7-b: Average Census Family Income in Current Dollars

[9] Special request from Community Foundations of Canada, Toronto Foundation’s national research partner. (2016). NVS Table XI-8-b: Median Census Family Income in Current Dollars

[10] Alliance for a Poverty-Free Toronto, Children’s Aid Society of Toronto, Colour of Poverty – Colour of Change, Family Service Toronto, and Social Planning Toronto. (2015). Toronto Child & Family Poverty Update 2015. Social Planning Toronto. Last accessed February 8, 2016 from http://www.socialplanningtoronto.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Toronto-child-and-family-poverty-update-oct-09-final31.pdf

[11] Alliance for a Poverty-Free Toronto, Children’s Aid Society of Toronto, Colour of Poverty – Colour of Change, Family Service Toronto, and Social Planning Toronto. (2015). Toronto Child & Family Poverty Update 2015. Social Planning Toronto. Last accessed February 8, 2016 from http://www.socialplanningtoronto.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Toronto-child-and-family-poverty-update-oct-09-final31.pdf

[12] Michael Polanyi, Lesley Johnston, Anita Khanna, Said Dirie, & Michael Kerr. (November 14, 2014). The Alliance for a Poverty-free Toronto and Social Planning Toronto. The Hidden Epidemic: A Report on Child and Family Poverty in Toronto. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from http://www.torontocas.ca/app/Uploads/documents/cast-report2014-final-web71.pdf.

[13] Monsebraaten, Laurie. (October 7, 2015). Child poverty widespread in Toronto-area ridings. Toronto Star. Last accessed February 22, 2016 from http://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2015/10/07/child-poverty-widespread-in-toronto-area-ridings.html.

[14] Campaign 2000. (October 8, 2015) Mapping child poverty: A reality in every federal riding. Last accessed April 14, 2016 from http://www.campaign2000.ca/whatsnew/releases/ChildPovertyBackgrounderOctober%208_15.pdf.

[15] Monsebraaten, Laurie. (October 7, 2015). Child poverty widespread in Toronto-area ridings. Toronto Star. Last accessed February 22, 2016 from http://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2015/10/07/child-poverty-widespread-in-toronto-area-ridings.html.

[16] http://campaign2000.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Child-Poverty-by-Federal-Riding-C2000-Media-Release-Oct-8th-12-AM-Embargo.pdf.

[17] Monsebraaten, Laurie. (October 7, 2015). Child poverty widespread in Toronto-area ridings. Toronto Star. Last accessed February 22, 2016 from http://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2015/10/07/child-poverty-widespread-in-toronto-area-ridings.html.

[18] Campaign 2000. (October 8, 2015). Media release. Last accessed September 1, 2016 from http://campaign2000.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Child-Poverty-by-Federal-Riding-C2000-Media-Release-Oct-8th-12-AM-Embargo.pdf.

[19] Campaign 2000. (October 8, 2015). Media release. Last accessed September 1, 2016 from http://campaign2000.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Child-Poverty-by-Federal-Riding-C2000-Media-Release-Oct-8th-12-AM-Embargo.pdf.

[20] Campaign 2000. (October 8, 2015). Media release. Last accessed September 1, 2016 from http://campaign2000.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Child-Poverty-by-Federal-Riding-C2000-Media-Release-Oct-8th-12-AM-Embargo.pdf.

[21] Macdonald D. & Wilson D. (2016, May). Shameful Neglect – Indigenous Child Poverty in Canada. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. Last accessed May 20, 2016 from: https://www.policyalternatives.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/publications/National%20Office/2016/05/Indigenous_Child%20_Poverty.pdf

[22] Macdonald D. & Wilson D. (2016, May). Shameful Neglect – Indigenous Child Poverty in Canada. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. Last accessed May 20, 2016 from: https://www.policyalternatives.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/publications/National%20Office/2016/05/Indigenous_Child%20_Poverty.pdf

[23] Macdonald D. & Wilson D. (2016, May). Shameful Neglect – Indigenous Child Poverty in Canada. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. Last accessed May 20, 2016 from: https://www.policyalternatives.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/publications/National%20Office/2016/05/Indigenous_Child%20_Poverty.pdf

[24] Macdonald D. & Wilson D. (2016, May). Shameful Neglect – Indigenous Child Poverty in Canada. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. Last accessed May 20, 2016 from: https://www.policyalternatives.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/publications/National%20Office/2016/05/Indigenous_Child%20_Poverty.pdf

[25] May Warren. (May 27, 2016). Finding the hidden Toronto indigenous community that Statistics Canada misses. Metro News. Last accessed September 1, 2016 from http://www.metronews.ca/news/toronto/2016/05/26/new-report-sheds-light-on-hidden-indigenous-community-in-toronto.html.

[26] World Council on City Data: WCCD Open City Data Portal. (2015). Last accessed August 26, 2016, from http://open.dataforcities.org/. Visit this portal to find further data on this and other subjects for these and other cities. NOTE: Poverty rates reported to the WCCD use national measure standards that vary from country to country: rates reported for Canadian cities use Statistics Canada’s Low Income Measure after Tax (LIM-AT) (a fixed percentage (50%) of median adjusted after-tax income of households, where ‘adjusted’ indicates that a household’s needs are taken into account); rates reported for UK cities use a measure based on household incomes less than 60% of the national median income that year; rates reported for Dutch cities use a measure based on the population with income below the low-income threshold as determined by the Central Bureau of Statistics for that year; rates reported for US cities use a measure based on the population with income below the poverty threshold as determined by the US Census Bureau for that year, and; rates reported for Australian cities use a measure based on benchmark income thresholds established by the Henderson poverty inquiry (1973) and adjusted annually using an index of per capita household disposable income by the Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research.

[27] World Council on City Data: WCCD Open City Data Portal. (2015). Last accessed August 26, 2016, from http://open.dataforcities.org/. Visit this portal to find further data on this and other subjects for these and other cities. NOTE: Poverty rates reported to the WCCD use national measure standards that vary from country to country: rates reported for Canadian cities use Statistics Canada’s Low Income Measure after Tax (LIM-AT) (a fixed percentage (50%) of median adjusted after-tax income of households, where ‘adjusted’ indicates that a household’s needs are taken into account); rates reported for UK cities use a measure based on household incomes less than 60% of the national median income that year; rates reported for Dutch cities use a measure based on the population with income below the low-income threshold as determined by the Central Bureau of Statistics for that year; rates reported for US cities use a measure based on the population with income below the poverty threshold as determined by the US Census Bureau for that year, and; rates reported for Australian cities use a measure based on benchmark income thresholds established by the Henderson poverty inquiry (1973) and adjusted annually using an index of per capita household disposable income by the Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research.

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