Demographics

Why is this important?

The size and makeup of the city’s population has major implications for city planners, school boards, businesses, health care institutions, and community organizations—in fact, for everybody.

 

What are the trends?

The Toronto Region’s population base is one of the fastest growing in Canada; growth between 2001 and 2014 equaled 87% of the total population of Calga ry in 2015. More than half of the global population (54%) now lives in cities, and by 2050 it is expected to grow to 66%. Toronto has more than twice the proportion of recent immigrants (8.4%) as Canada (3.5%). Toronto’s population continues to age. Seniors represent 15% of the city’s residents, and it has been projected that the GTA will have absorbed more than half the provincial increase in the over-75 population between 2011 and 2016.

What’s new?

Although immigration has been one of the city’s main sources of growth, its share as a source of population growth declined by almost a fifth from 2011 to 2013. However, 40% of Toronto’s youth who moved here within the last five years did so for better opportunities. As in other major North American cities, transit infrastructure in Toronto is being overwhelmed by the numbers of people who are increasingly choosing to live and work downtown. Meanwhile, the return of the long-form census is good news for city leaders, increasing their ability to plan.

How is Toronto’ s population growing?

The GTA (2015 population estimate: 6,625,695[1]) accounted for 72% of total Ontario population growth between 2006 and 2011[2]:

  • A projection based on the 2011 National Household Survey estimates that the Region will grow an average 1.6% (or 108,766 persons) annually between 2014 and 2019, bringing the population to almost 7.1 million.[3]

The Toronto Region’s population base is one of the fastest growing in Canada:

  • In 2015, 44.4% of Ontarians lived in the Toronto Region, which had a population of 6,129,934 (up 2.7% from 5,966,417 in 2013). Between 2000 and 2015, the Region’s population increased by 28.65% (from 4,764,739), with an average annual increase of 1.6%.[4]
  • It is estimated that between 2001 (when the population was 4,882,782) and 2015 the Region added 1,247,152 people, or 87% of the population of Calgary in 2015 (1,439,756).[5]
  • Almost half (46.4%) of the Region’s population in 2014 lived within the city of Toronto.[6]
  • Almost one in five Canadians (18.1% of the total population) lived in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) in 2011.[7]

projectingCanada’s Top 10 CMAs Ranked by Population and Projected Population Growth, 2014–2019 [8]

The City of Toronto’s population grew by 4.5% between 2006 and 2011 (from 2,503,281 to 2,615,060):

  •  The growth represents a 5.4% increase (from 2,481,494) since 2001. 20.3% of Ontario’s 12,851,821 people lived in Toronto in 2011.[9]
  • projecting

    In 2015, Toronto’s population had reached 2,826,497, up 0.78% from 2,804,607 in 2014. Growth was slightly higher between 2014 and 2013 (+0.99%) and between 2013 and 2012 (+1.31%).[10]

  • These urbanization trends reflect similar shifts occurring the world over—more than half (54%) of the global population now lives in urban areas, and the proportion of the world’s population living in urban areas is expected to increase to 66% by 2050.[11]

projectingToronto’s median age is 39.2 years, but figures from 2011 (the most recent census we have data for) illustrate an ongoing demographic shift that will see the proportion of seniors in Toronto grow from one in seven Canadians in 2011 to about one in four by 2036[12]:

  • In 2011 the median age of Toronto’s population was 39.2 years, slightly younger than Ontario’s (40.4 years) and Canada’s (40.6 years). Toronto’s median age has increased by 2.3 years since 2001, from 36.9.
    • Of the total population in Toronto, 15% were under 14, 71.1% were between 15 and 64, and 14.4% were 65 and over. Comparatively, 19.6% of Ontario’s population is under 14, 68.4% are between 15 and 64, and 14.6% are 65 and older.[13]
  • Toronto’s fastest growing population segment in 2011 was 85 and older.[14]
  • projecting

    The GTA was projected to absorb more than half the provincial increase in the over-75 group between 2011 and 2016 (more than 60,000 people).[15]

  • Long-term care homes are dealing with residents who are older, more frail, and have more complex care needs (as of 2010, only seniors with high or very high care needs are eligible for long-term care).[16]
  • According to estimates since the 2011 census, seniors (65+) made up 15.04% of the Toronto population in 2015, up from 14.77% in 2014, 14.50% in 2013, 14.21% in 2012, and 13.98 in 2011.[17]
    • Seniors made up 13.9% of the population of the Region in 2015 (compared to 16% in Ontario, and 16.1% in Canada), an increase of 2.2% from 2014. Between 2001 and 2015 the proportion of seniors in the Region’s population increased by 27.1%.[18]
    • The number of adults 55 years and older has increased in all but one of Toronto’s neighbourhoods over a 10-year period.[19]

 

Population Change in Older Adult Population 55+, Toronto, 2001-2011 [20]

Demo-PopulationChangeOlder

Source: Statistics Canada Census, 2001 and 2011. Map prepared by City of Toronto Social Development Finance and Administration.

  • 2011 Census data indicate that over one in five Torontonians (22%) 55 years and older live alone. The percentage doubles for Toronto’s oldest citizens—44% of those 85 and older live alone.
  • Multiple estimates forecast significant growth in Toronto’s older adult population.[21]

 

Forecasted Percentage of Older Adults in Toronto’s Total Population [22]


Demo-ForecastedPercentageOlderAdults

Source: Statistics Canada 2011 Census. Prepared by Hemson Consulting, 2012.

  • The share of the city’s population who are youth aged 15-24 has remained relatively stable over the last decade. Youth accounted for 13.09% of the population in 2006, and 12.79% in 2015.[23]
    • The share of children (under 15) has declined slightly over the past decade, from 16.0% of the city’s population in 2006 to 14.25% in 2015. In comparison, children represented 15.9% of Ontario’s population, and 16.04% of Canada’s.[24]

More than half of the Region’s young adults live with their parents:

  • In 2011 56.3% of young adults (aged 20-29) lived in their parental home—33.1% higher than the national rate of 42.3%, and 5.7 percentage points higher than the provincial average of 50.6%.
  • Between 2001 and 2011, the proportion of young adults living with their parents had increased by 2.3 percentage points.[25]

 

Toronto’s proportion of single-parent families is decreasing, but remains much higher than the proportion across the province and the country:

  • In 2011 single parents headed one of every five families (146,990 families or 21.3%), a decrease of 6.2 percentage points from 2001 (from 130,870 or 27.5% of families). Comparatively, in 2011 16.3% of Canadian families and 16.7% of Ontario’s were single-parent families.[26]

40% of Toronto’s youth moved here within the last five years, and they did so for better opportunities:

  • According to a global youth survey by The Economist’s Intelligence Unit, 40% of Toronto respondents (150 youth between 18 and 25) reported moving to their city within the last five years for school, work, or a better life.
  • Toronto ranked 22nd of the 35 cities surveyed (see chart).[27]

Percentage of Respondents Moving for School, Work, or a Better Life, Last Five Years [28]

Accelerating Pathways, commissioned by the Citi Foundation and conducted by the Economist Intelligence Unit, is a global research initiative that offers an in-depth look at how 35 global cities support young people's economic ambitions. This research initiative includes a city-level index and a survey of youth meant to spark dialogue around what approaches are working and what else is needed.

Almost a third of Torontonians arrived in the city between 1991 and 2011:

  • 30.7% of the city’s 2011 population—790,895 (including non-permanent residents) of a total population of 2,576,025—arrived in the two decades before the 2011 NHS.[29]
  • 216,525 immigrants moved to Toronto between 2006 and 2011. In 2011 immigrants in the city numbered 1,252,215—48.6% of the population. 1,258,870 Canadian-born residents made up 48.9%.[30]

 

Toronto is home to many of the country’s new permanent residents, although over the past decade, fewer are deciding to call Toronto home:

  • In 2014, 29.1% of new (permanent) Canadian residents from all over the world settled in Toronto [31]
  • In the Region, in 2015 there was a total of 82,108 new permanent residents, up from 75,644 in 2014, representing an 8.5% increase.[32]
  • In 2011, 51% of Toronto residents were born outside of Canada, and one in 12 had arrived in the country in the previous five years. One-third of the total population of immigrants in Toronto had arrived in Canada within the previous 10 years. Toronto has more than twice the proportion of recent immigrants as Canada (8.4% compared to 3.5% nationally). The city of Toronto became home to 216,520 new residents between 2006 and 2011.
    • 14% of Toronto residents don’t yet hold Canadian citizenship (compared to 6% for all of Canada).[33]

 

Number of New Permanent Residents, Toronto, 2004–2014 [34]

Half of Toronto’s population comprises visible minority residents:

  • In 2011 the population classified as a visible minority in Toronto was 1,264,395—49.1% of the total population. In contrast, only 19.1% of Canada’s and 25.9% of Ontario’s populations were visible minorities.
  • Toronto’s visible minority population increased by 6.7 percentage points between 2011 and 2001 (from 42.4% of the total population).[35]

 

Three thriving “ethnoburbs” (ethnic suburbs) are emerging in the Toronto Region:

  • Many of the immigrants coming to the Toronto Region in the last decades have settled directly in the suburbs, drawn by more affordable housing and open spaces, and jobs in suburban business and industrial parks. They have created distinct ethnic suburbs (complete multi-ethnic communities of residences, businesses, and cultural institutions, with a high concentration of one ethnic group).
    • The study identified three distinct ethnoburbs in the Region: one that includes Brampton, most of Mississauga, north Etobicoke, and western North York and is predominantly South Asian; a second that includes most of Markham, Scarborough, eastern North York, and part of Richmond Hill, with a predominantly Chinese population; and a third emerging in Pickering and Ajax, with a high South Asian population.
    • In Toronto’s ethnoburbs, local residents own, or have a stake in, a large percentage of local businesses and have developed a full range of cultural institutions.
  •  By July 2011 there were 53 Chinese supermarkets (43 in the ethnoburbs) and 66 Chinese shopping centres (57 in the ethnoburbs) to serve 500,000 Chinese ethnic residents in the Toronto Region.
  • The first South Asian shopping centre opened in Scarborough in 2008 and three new centres will add 540,000 sq. ft. of commercial space in Brampton and Scarborough.[36]

Distribution of South Asian Temples and Chinese Shopping Centres, Toronto Region, 2011 (shaded areas are “ethnoburbs”) [37]

Demo-DistributionSouthAsianTemplesChineseShoppingCentres

Nonetheless, immigration has declined as a source of Toronto’s population growth over recent years:

  • The age structure of the population, natural increase (the difference between the number of births and the number of deaths in a year), and migratory movement in and out of the city are the main determinants of Toronto’s population growth.
  • In the last decade the rate of natural increase has remained relatively flat, but net migration has been more variable, mostly due to swings in interprovincial migration and international immigration.
  • Immigration as a share of Toronto’s population has been high and one of the main sources of its growth. Its share as a source of population growth declined, however, by 19% from 2011 to 2013.[38]

 

Components of Toronto’s Population Change, 2002-2013 [39]

Demo-ComponentsTorontoPopulationChange

 

  • From July 1, 2014, to June 30, 2015, the population of the Region grew by 76,528 people, due to:
    • a net gain of 66,697 people from international migration,
    • a net loss of 2,729 people to interprovincial migration,
    • a net loss of 22,751 people to intraprovincial migration, and
    • a natural increase of 35,311 people.[40]

 

Toronto residents identified more than 230 countries of birth on the 2011 National Household Survey; just over half (51%) claimed English as a mother tongue:

  • 1% of Torontonians listed French as their mother tongue and 45% listed non-official languages as their mother tongues. 3% reported multiple mother tongues.
  • The number of residents with no knowledge of either English or French was unchanged from 2006, at 5% of the population. 28% spoke neither English nor French at home.
  • Of the top 15 languages regularly spoken at home, Mandarin was the fastest growing in Toronto in 2011, spoken by more than 50,000 residents (2.1% of the total population – an increase of 32% since 2006).
    • One of the fastest growing groups, residents who speak Bengali at home (17,820 in 2011), increased by 22% in five years. Farsi speakers have increased by 11% over the period, and Tagalog speakers by 10%.[41]

 

How can the city keep up with the demands on infrastructure and services?

The population in Toronto’s downtown core grew dramatically in the five years before the 2011 census (the latest census data available):

  • The population growth rate in downtown Toronto more than tripled between 2006 and 2011 compared with the three previous census periods, as the children of baby boomers—the echo boomers—sought access to jobs, transit, and downtown attractions over housing size and space (and a long commute) in the suburbs. The downtown core also outpaced growth in the suburbs for the first time since the early ’70s. Suburban population growth dropped from 18.6% to 13.7% over five years, as downtown growth went from 4.6% to 16.2% over the same period.
    • In 2011 nearly half (47%) of the downtown population was between 20 and 39 years old (compared to 25.8% across the GTA suburbs of York, Peel, Halton, and Durham). The median age in the city core has dropped to the mid-30s.[42]

 

In major cities across North America, millennials are contributing to urban renewal but are overwhelming transit infrastructure with their desire to work and live downtown:

  • A report from global commercial real-estate firm Cushman & Wakefield examines the consequences to public transit and gridlock of rapid population growth in 10 major North American urban centres (Atlanta, Washington D.C., Miami, Mexico City, Boston, San Francisco, Los Angeles, New York, Chicago, and Toronto).
  • projecting

    Over 46,000 high-rise condominium units were under construction at the time of the report’s release in fall 2014. Companies are following the workers; 4.5 million ft2 of office space was built between 2009 and 2011, and 5.1 million ft2 were estimated to go up between 2014 and 2017.[43]

 

The return of the long-form census questionnaire is good news for cities across Canada:

  • Municipalities were greatly affected by the cancellation of the mandatory long-form census questionnaire and move to a short-form census and voluntary National Household Survey (NHS).
  • The Federation of Canadian Municipalities reported that the loss of information was hindering local governments’ abilities to effectively understand, monitor, and plan for the changing needs of communities.
  • Toronto’s manager of social research said the change also increased planning costs:
    • Staff resources and money had to be spent to source and purchase supplementary sources of data.
    • Extra staff hours went into checking whether data from disparate sources were comparable over time like data from the long-form censuses were.
  •  Toronto’s most vulnerable residents will pay the biggest price, as the loss of the richer census data made it difficult to determine which communities were most in need of services and long-term investment.[44]
  • The response rate across Canada for the 2015 census was 97.8%, the best ever in its history, which began in 1666 in New France.[45]

 

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has released the first standardised set of indicators for cities. ISO 37120 will allow cities to measure indicators such as energy, environment, finance, recreation, telecommunications and innovation, and more against other global cities:

  • The standardized measurements will allow for learning across cities and more innovation in city decision-making and global benchmarking.[46]

 

The Toronto-based World Council on City Data (WCCD) hosts a network of innovative cities committed to improving city services and quality of life with globally standardized city data and provides a consistent and comprehensive platform for standardized urban metrics:

  • Comparable city data is critical for building more sustainable, resilient, smart, prosperous, and inclusive cities. As a global leader on standardized metrics, the WCCD is operationalising ISO 37120 Sustainable Development of Communities: Indicators for City Services and Quality of Life, the first international standard for sustainable and resilient cities.
  • The WCCD has also developed the first ISO 37120 certification system and the Global Cities Registry™. In May 2015 the WCCD Open City Data Portal was launched. This innovative and highly visual tool allows for comparative analytics across the WCCD cities, while fostering global learning and the creation of data-driven solutions for cities.

 

 


 

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[2] Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. (2012). Seniors Housing Report Ontario. Last accessed July 21, 2015 from http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/odpub/esub/65981/65981_2012_A01.pdf.

[3] Toronto Region Board of Trade, created in collaboration with United Way Toronto. (2014). Closing the Prosperity Gap. Last accessed August 29, 2016 from http://www.unitedwaytoronto.com/document.doc?id=253

[4] Special request from Community Foundations of Canada, Toronto Foundation’s national research partner. (2016). NVS Table XI-1-b: Total number of people

[5] Special request from Community Foundations of Canada, Toronto Foundation’s national research partner. (2016). NVS Table XI-1-b: Post-Censal Estimates of Population in Vital Signs Communities on July 1, 1996, and 2000-2014.

[6] City of Toronto, Economic Development and Culture. (2014). Economic Indicators July 2015. Last accessed September 17, 2015 from http://www1.toronto.ca/static_files/economic_development_and_culture/docs/Economic%20indicators/economic_indicators.pdf.

[7] City of Toronto Backgrounder. (2012). 2011 Census: Population and Dwelling Counts. Last accessed on June 16, 2014 from http://www1.toronto.ca/city_of_toronto/social_development_finance__administration/files/pdf/2011-census-backgrounder.pdf.

[8] Toronto Region Board of Trade, created in collaboration with United Way Toronto. (2014). Closing the Prosperity Gap. Last accessed August 29, 2016 from http://www.unitedwaytoronto.com/document.doc?id=253.

[9] Special request from Community Foundations of Canada, Toronto Foundation’s national research partner. (2016). NVS Table XI-1-a: Total number of people

[10] CANSIM Table 109-5355, Geography limited to “City of Toronto Health Unit, Ontario [3595-G]” http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1095355&&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csid=

[11] United Nations, Economic and Social Affairs. (2014). World Urbanization Prospects: the 2014 Revision, Highlights. Last accessed September 11, 2015 from http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/Highlights/WUP2014-Highlights.pdf.

[12] Federation of Canadian Municipalities. (2013). Canada’s Aging Population: The Municipal Role in Canada’s Demographic Shift. Last accessed June 25, 2015, from http://www.fcm.ca/Documents/reports/FCM/canadas_aging_population_the_municipal_role_in_Canadas_demographic_shift_en.pdf.

[13] Special request from Community Foundations of Canada, Toronto Foundation’s national research partner. (2016). NVS Table XI-4: Median Age of the Population

[14] City of Toronto. (2013). Toronto Seniors Strategy 2013: Towards an Age-Friendly City. Last accessed August 4, 2013, from: https://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Social%20Development,%20Finance%20&%20Administration/Shared%20Content/Seniors/PDFs/seniors-strategy-fullreport.pdf.

[15] CMHC Housing Market Information. (2012). Seniors, Housing Report: Ontario. Last accessed August 24, 2016, from http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/odpub/esub/65981/65981_2012_A01.pdf.

[16] Ontario Long Term Care Association. (2015). Building resident-centered long-term care, now and for the Future. Pre-Budget Submission to the Ontario Government 2015/2016. http://www.oltca.com/oltca/Documents/Reports/PreBudgetSubmission2015-2016.pdf.

[17] CANSIM Table 109-5355, Geography limited to “City of Toronto Health Unit, Ontario [3595-G], Age Group limited to “65 to 69 years”, “70 to 74 years”, “75 to 79 years,” “80 to 84 years,” “85 to 89 years” and “90 years and over” http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1095355&&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csid

[18] Special request from Community Foundations of Canada, Toronto Foundation’s national research partner. (2016). NVS Table XI-3-b: Percentage as elderly (65 and over) of total population

[19] City of Toronto. (2014). The Toronto Seniors Strategy The Toronto Seniors Strategy Towards an Age-Friendly City. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Social%20Development,%20Finance%20&%20Administration/Shared%20Content/Seniors/PDFs/seniors-strategy-fullreport.pdf.

[20] City of Toronto. (2014). The Toronto Seniors Strategy The Toronto Seniors Strategy Towards an Age-Friendly City. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Social%20Development,%20Finance%20&%20Administration/Shared%20Content/Seniors/PDFs/seniors-strategy-fullreport.pdf.

[21] City of Toronto. (2014). The Toronto Seniors Strategy The Toronto Seniors Strategy Towards an Age-Friendly City. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Social%20Development,%20Finance%20&%20Administration/Shared%20Content/Seniors/PDFs/seniors-strategy-fullreport.pdf.

[22] City of Toronto. (2014). The Toronto Seniors Strategy The Toronto Seniors Strategy Towards an Age-Friendly City. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Social%20Development,%20Finance%20&%20Administration/Shared%20Content/Seniors/PDFs/seniors-strategy-fullreport.pdf.

[23] CANSIM Table 109-5355, Geography limited to “City of Toronto Health Unit, Ontario [3595-G]” Age Group limited to “15 to 19 years” and “20 to 24 years” http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1095355&&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csid=. Note: This Report occasionally uses data from the Statistics Canada 2011 National Household Survey (NHS). The NHS excludes a portion of the 2006 (and earlier) census population and data were collected in a voluntary survey, making the results vulnerable to non-response bias. As a result, NHS data cannot be compared reliably with those from earlier Census releases. Comparisons with previous census periods should be considered with caution.

[24] CANSIM Table 109-5355, Geography limited to “City of Toronto Health Unit, Ontario [3595-G]”, Age Group limited to “1 to 4 years”, “5 to 9 years” and “10 to 14 years” http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1095355&&pattern=&stByVal=1&p1=1&p2=-1&tabMode=dataTable&csid=

[25] Special request from Community Foundations of Canada, Toronto Foundation’s national research partner. (2016). NVS Table XI-11: Proportion of Young Adults Aged 20-29 Living in the Parental Home.

[26] Special request from Community Foundations of Canada, Toronto Foundation’s national research partner. (2016). NVS Table XI-10: Proportion of Single-Parent Families of total families.

[27] The Economist: Intelligence Unit. (2015). Accelerating Pathways: Global Youth Survey 2015. Citi Foundation. Last accessed February 22, 2016 from http://www.citi.com/citi/foundation/programs/pathways-to-progress/accelerating-pathways/downloads/Citi-Foundation-Accelerating-Pathways-Global-Youth-Survey-2015.pdf

[28] The Economist: Intelligence Unit. (2015). Accelerating Pathways: Global Youth Survey 2015. Citi Foundation. Last accessed February 22, 2016 from http://www.citi.com/citi/foundation/programs/pathways-to-progress/accelerating-pathways/downloads/Citi-Foundation-Accelerating-Pathways-Global-Youth-Survey-2015.pdf

[29] Special request from Community Foundations of Canada, Toronto Foundation’s national research partner. (2016). NVS Table XI-6: Proportion of Immigrants in total population ; http://www1.toronto.ca/city_of_toronto/social_development_finance__administration/files/pdf/nhs_backgrounder.pdf.

[30] Special request from Community Foundations of Canada, Toronto Foundation’s national research partner. (2016). NVS Table XI-6: Proportion of Immigrants in total population.

[31] Citizenship and Immigration Canada (2015). Facts and Figures 2014 – Immigration overview: Permanent residents. http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/facts2014/permanent/11.asp (last accessed August 2016).

[32] Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. (2016). IRCC Permanent Residents March 31, 2016 Data. Last accessed August 29, 2016 from http://www.cic.gc.ca/opendata-donneesouvertes/data/000012-eng.xls?_ga=1.114287361.766291159.1458137258

[33] City of Toronto Backgrounder. (2013). 2011 National Household Survey: Immigration, Citizenship, Place of Birth, Ethnicity, Visible Minorities, Religion and Aboriginal Peoples. Last accessed September 1, 2014, from http://www.toronto.ca/demographics/pdf/nhs_backgrounder.pdf. Note: This Report occasionally uses data from the Statistics Canada 2011 National Household Survey (NHS). The NHS excludes a portion of the 2006 (and earlier) census population and data were collected in a voluntary survey, making the results vulnerable to non-response bias. As a result, NHS data cannot be compared reliably with those from earlier Census releases. Comparisons with previous census periods should be considered with caution.

[34] Citizenship and Immigration. (2014). Canada Facts and Figures. Immigrant Overview, Permanent Residents, 2014. Last accessed August 29, 2016 fromhttp://www.cic.gc.ca/english/pdf/2014-Facts-Permanent.pdf; Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. (2016). IRCC Permanent Residents March 31, 2016 Data. Last accessed August 29, 2016 from http://www.cic.gc.ca/opendata-donneesouvertes/data/000012-eng.xls?_ga=1.114287361.766291159.1458137258.

[35] Special request from Community Foundations of Canada, Toronto Foundation’s national research partner. (2016). NVS Table XI-9: Proportion of Population Classified as a Visible Minority

[36] CERIS – The Ontario Metropolis Centre. (2013). Working Paper Series. Delineating Ethnoburbs in Metropolitan Toronto. Last accessed on September 22, 2015 from http://www.torontolip.com/Portals/0/Resources/General/Delineating%20Ethnoburbs%20in%20Metropolitan%20Toronto.pdf.

[37] CERIS – The Ontario Metropolis Centre. (2013). Working Paper Series. Delineating Ethnoburbs in Metropolitan Toronto. Last accessed on September 22, 2015 from http://www.torontolip.com/Portals/0/Resources/General/Delineating%20Ethnoburbs%20in%20Metropolitan%20Toronto.pdf.

[38] Toronto Workforce Innovation Group. (2014). Local Labour Market Update 2014. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from http://www.workforceinnovation.ca/sites/default/files/Labour_Market_Update_1.pdf

[39] Toronto Workforce Innovation Group. (2014). Local Labour Market Update 2014. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from http://www.workforceinnovation.ca/sites/default/files/Labour_Market_Update_1.pdf

[40] Special request from Community Foundations of Canada, Toronto Foundation’s national research partner. (2016). NVS Table VI-1-c: Migration and Components of Population.

[41] City of Toronto Backgrounder. (2012). 2011 Census: Language. Last accessed on September 1, 2016 from http://www.toronto.ca/demographics/pdf/language_2011_backgrounder.pdf.

[42] TD Economics. (2013). Observation. Toronto—A Return to the Core. Last accessed September 1, 2014, from http://www.td.com/document/PDF/economics/special/ff0113_toronto.pdf.

[43] Cushman & Wakefield. (Fall 2014). Urban Development: Faster Greener Commutes Key to Sustained City Growth. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from http://www.cushmanwakefield.com/~/media/reports/corporate/Global%20Reports/CW_North%20American%20Transit%20Report%20Fall%202014.pdf.

[44] Tavia Grant and Elizabeth Church. The Globe and Mail. (February 2015). Cities to weigh loss of long-form census for community planning. Last accessed September 22, 2015 from http://www.theglobeandmail.com//news/national/canadian-cities-to-weigh-loss-of-long-form-census-for-community-planning/article22774033/?cmpid=rss1&click=sf_globe.

[45] CBC. Statistics Canada celebrates ‘best census since 1666.’ (August 29,2016) Last accessed August 30, 2016 from http://www.cbc.ca/beta/news/politics/best-census-ever-stats-can-1.3739857.

[46] International Standards Organization. (May 14, 2015). How does your city compare to others? New ISO standard to measure up. Last accessed August 25, 2015, from http://www.iso.org/iso/news.htm?refid=Ref1848.